Women in STEM fields

Many scholars and policymakers have noted that the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM fields) have been predominantly male occupations, with historically low participation among women , from their origin in the Age of Enlightenment to the present time. STEM professions, like medicine , require higher education or training in almost all cases.

Since the feminist revolution of the 1970s , the opportunities for men and women in higher education have become more important in Canada, with more women than men enrolled in post-secondary education. STEM professions on the ground.

Scholars are exploring the various reasons for the continued existence of this gender disparity in STEM fields. Those who view this disparity as a result of being discriminated against bythese disparities in the context of STEM fields (these typically construed as well-compensated, high-status professions with universal career appeal). [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Some proponents view diversity as an inherent human good, and wish to increase diversity for its own sake, regardless of its historical origin or present cause.

Gender imbalance in STEM fields

Studies suggest That Many factors contribuer to the Attitudes Towards and achievement of young women in mathematics and science , Including encouragement from parents, interactions with mathematics and science teachers, content curriculum, hands-on laboratory experiments, high school achievement in mathematics and science, and resources available at home. [6] In the United States , research findings are mixed about when boys ‘and girls’ attitudes about mathematics and science diverge. Analyzing several nationally representative longitudinal studies , one researcher found few differences in girls ‘and boys’ attitudes towards science in the early secondary school years. [6]Students’ aspirations to pursue careers in mathematics and science influence both the courses they choose to take in those areas and the level of effort they put forth in these courses. A report by the US Department of Educationfound that the gap in the career aspirations of boys and girls in STEM fields exists as early as eighth grade. Among the eighth grade class of 1988, they were more likely to be scientists or engineers(9 and 3 percent, respectively), were more likely than boys to aspire to professional, business, or managerial occupations (38 and 20 percent respectively). Whereas male and female high school seniors are likely to expect a career in science or mathematics, they are more likely than their female counterparts to expect a career in engineering . [7]

Girls begin to lose self-confidence in middle school because they believe that they possess more intelligence in technical fields. [8] The fact that men outperform women in spatial analysis, a skillset many engineering professionals deem vital, this misconception. [3] Feminists scholars postulate that they are more likely to gain spatial skills outside the classroom because they are culturally encouraged to build and work with their hands. [9] Research shows that girls can develop these same skills with training. [10] [11]

A 1996 study of college freshmen by the Higher Education Research Institute shows that men and women differ greatly in their intended fields of study. Of first-time college freshmen in 1996, 20 percent of men and 4 percent of women in science and engineering, while similar percentages of men and women in biology or physical sciences. The differences in the future between men and women first-time freshmen directly related to the differences in the fields in which men and women earn their degree. At the post-secondary level, women are less likely than men to earn a degree in mathematics, physical science, or computer science and engineering. The exception to this gender imbalance is in the life sciences.[12]

Effects of underrepresentation of women in STEM careers

Women in this STEM fields undergo the Matilda effect [13] . Rosalind Franklin [14] experienced this during the discovery of the dna structure. Her work was not credited at the time Francis Crick and James Watson received the 1962 Nobel Prize.

In Scotland , a large number of women graduate in STEM subjects but fail to move to STEM career compared to that of men. This represents £ 170 million per annul loss to Scotland’s national income. [15]

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Men’s and women’s earnings

See also: Gender pay gap

Female college graduates earned less than average college graduates, even though they were graduating in the 1980s. Some of the differences in salary are related to the differences in occupations entered by women and men. Among recent science and engineering bachelor’s degree recipients, women were less likely than men to be employed in science and engineering occupations. There is a gap between men and women in comparable scientific positions. Among more experienced scientists and engineers, the gender gap in salaries is greater than for recent graduates. [16] Salaries are highest in mathematics, computer science, and engineering, fields in which women are not highly represented. In Australia , a study conducted byThe Australian Bureau of Statistics has shown that it has grown to 30.1 percent as of 2013, which is an increase of 3 percent since 2012. [17]

Representation of women worldwide

UNESCO , among other agencies including the European Commission and the Association of Academia and Societies of Sciences in Asia (AASSA), have been outspoken about the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields globally. [18] [19] [20]

Asia

A fact sheet published by UNESCO in March 2015 [21] presented worldwide statistics of women in STEM fields, with a focus onAsiaand the Pacific region. It reports that, worldwide, 30 percent of researchers are women. In these areas, East Asia and the Pacific and South Asia have had the highest incidence, with 20 percent of researchers being in these sub-regions. Meanwhile, Central Asia had the most equal weight in the region, with women comprising 46 percent of its researchers. The Central Asian countries Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan were the only countries in Asia with women as the majority of their researchers, though in both cases by a very small margin. [21]

countries Percentage of researchers who are female
Central Asia 46%
world 30%
South and West Asia 20%
East Asia and the Pacific 20%

Cambodia

As of 2004, 13.9% of students enrolled in science programs in Cambodia Were female and 21% of Researchers in science, technology, and innovation fields Were female as of 2002. These statistics are Significantly lower than other Asian countries Those of Such As Malaysia , Mongolia , and South Korea . According to a UNESCO report on women in STEM in Asian countries, Cambodia’s education system has a long history of male dominance stemming from its male-only Buddhistteaching practices. Starting in 1924, girls were allowed to enroll in school. Bias against women, not only in education but also in other aspects of life, exists in the form of the traditional, more powerful and dignified than women, especially in the workplace, according to UNESCO’s A Complex Formula . [18]

Indonesia

UNESCO’s A Complex Formula states that Indonesia’s government has been working towards gender equality, especially through the Ministry of Education and Culture , but stereotypes about women’s roles in the workplace persists. Due to traditional views and societal norms , women struggle to remain in their careers or to move up in the workplace. Substantially more women are enrolled in science-based fields such as pharmacy and biology than in mathematics and physics . Within engineering, statistics vary based on the specific engineering discipline; women make up 78% of chemical engineering students aim only 5% of mechanical engineeringstudents. As of 2005, out of 35,564 researchers in science, technology, and engineering, 10,874 or 31% were female. [18]

Malaysia

According to UNESCO, 48.19% of students enrolled in science programs in Malaysia were female as of 2011. This number has grown significantly in the past three decades, while the country’s employment rate has increased by 95%. In Malaysia, over 50% of employees in the computer industry, are particularly male-dominated field within STEM, are women. It has been theorized that this is more often than not “indoor” and more suited to Malaysian societal norms, as opposed to “outdoor” jobs more fitting for males. Of students enrolled in pharmacy, more than 70% are female, while in engineering only 36% of students are female. Women held 49% of research positions in science, technology, and innovation as of 2011. [18]

Mongolia

According to UNESCO’s data from 2012 and 2011 respectively, 40.2% of students enrolled in science programs and 49% of researchers in science, technology, and innovation in Mongolia are female. Traditionally nomadicMongolian culture was fairly equal, with both women and men raising children, tending livestock, and fighting in battle, which mirrors the relative equality of women and men in Mongolia’s modern-day workforce. More females than males pursue higher education and 65% of college graduates in Mongolia are women. However, women earn about 19-30% less than their male counterparts and are perceived by society to be less suited to engineering than men. Thirty percent or less of employees in computer science, construction architecture, and engineering are female. [18]

Nepal

As of 2011, 26.17% of Nepal’s science students were women and 19% of their engineering students were women. In research, women held 7.8% of positions in 2010. These low percentages correspond with Nepal’s patriarchal societal values. In Nepal, women enter STEM fields That MOST Often enter forestry or medicine, SPECIFICALLY nursing qui est Perceived as a Predominantly female occupation in MOST countries. [18]

South Korea

In 2012, data showed that 30.63% of students enrolled in science programs in South Korea were female. Numbers of male and female students enrolled at the higher levels of education are comparable, though the gender difference is larger in higher education. South Korea’s STEM gender gap. Confucian beliefs in the lower societal value of women. In South Korea, the percentage of women in medicine (61.6%) is much higher than the percentage of women in engineering (15.4%) and other more math-based stem fields. In research in science, technology, and innovation, women made up 17% of the workforce in 2011. In South Korea, most women working in STEM fields are classified as “non-regular” or temporary employees,[18] In a study conducted by the University of Glasgow, the authors of the study of mathematics and the performance of boys and girls from various countries, found that South Korea had a high sex difference in mathematics scores, with female students significantly lower than experiencing more math anxiety on math tests than male students. [22]

North America

United States

According to the Census Bureau’s 2009 American Community Survey, women included 48 percent of the US workforce but just 24 percent of workers in STEM fields. STEM jobs would be expected if gender representation in STEM jobs mirrored the overall workforce. This underrepresentation has been fairly steady over the past decade, even as women’s share of the college-educated workforce has increased. Among STEM jobs, women ‘s representation has varied over time. While the percentage of women has dropped in computer and math jobs, it has risen in other occupations. In 2009, women included 27 percent of the computer and mathematics (the largest of the four STEM components), a drop of 3 percentage points since 2000. Engineers are the second largest STEM occupational group.[23]

Men are much more likely than women to have STEM career regardless of educational attainment. Women in STEM fields, which is more important than men, even after controlling for age and age. On average, men in STEM earn $ 36.34 per hour while in STEM jobs earn $ 31.11 per hour. [23]

Percentage Distribution of Probable Fields of Study Among First-Time College Freshmen, by Sex (Fall 1996)

Probable major field of study Men Women
Arts and humanities 9.4 10.5
Biology 6.5 7.4
Business 18.1 13.8
Education 6.3 14.2
Engineering 15.2 2.6
Physical Sciences 2.7 2.0
Professional 9.8 20.2
Social sciences 6.1 11.7
Technical 3.7 1.4
Computer Sciences 4.3 1.2
Undecided 7.4 8.8
Other 10.5 6.5

[12]

The physical sciences include fields such as astronomy, chemistry, earth science, mathematics, and physics. The professional category includes such fields as architecture and health technologies. Women are more likely to be held than men and held by men. While many prestigious fields such as engineering, chemistry, physics, and computer sciences are dominated by men, women are the majority in the social sciences and life sciences.

It is important to note that the under-representation of women in STEM fields is even more pronounced for women of color in the US. Although Asian women are actually over-represented relative to the percentage of the total population, African American, Hispanic, and Native American women are severely underrepresented. Within academia, these minority women represent less than 1% of all tenure-track positions despite constituting approximately 13% of total US population. [24]

Underrepresentation in STEM-related awards and competitions

In terms of the most prestigious awards in STEM fields, only a small proportion has been awarded to women. Looking at the Nobel Prize for Jurisdiction, out of 199 laurates in Physics, 169 in Chemistry and 207 in Medicine, there were only two female laureates in physics, four in chemistry and 11 in medicine between 1901 and 2014. [25] The Fields Medal , which was initiated in 1936 and is considered the most prestigious prize in mathematics, was only obtained by a woman, Maryam Mirzakhani from Iran, in 2014 out of a total of 56 medallists. [26] [27]

When it comes to student participation in prestigious competitions in the International Olympic Games for instance, data shows that in the year 2014, female medallists, and more female contestants, were significantly underrepresented. For instance, the percentage of female contestants stands at just 4 per cent for informatics, 5 per cent for mathematics and 6 per cent for physics, yet it is an average of 28 per cent in biology among countries in the region, the latter reflecting findings on female enrollment within STEM disciplines in higher education. [28] [29] [30] [31] [27]

Recent advances in technology

Abbiss states that “the ubiquity of computers in everyday life has seen the breaking down of gender distinctions in preferences for the use of different applications, particularly in the use of the Internet and email.” [32] Both genders have acquired skills, competences and confidence in using a variety of technologies, mobile and application tools for personal and educational purposes. classes, which declines from grades 10 to 12 and to post-secondary level program options.

Explanations for low representation of women

Many people have attempted to make sense of the relatively low numbers of women in STEM fields, leading to the development of biological, structural, and social-psychological explanations. [33] [34] [35]

Female interest

A meta-analysis concludes that men prefer working with things and women prefer working with people. When interests Were classified by RIASEC types (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) Men Showed stronger Realistic and Investigative interests, and women Showed stronger Artistic, Social, and Conventional interests. Sex differences favoring men were also found for more specific measures of engineering, science, and mathematics interests. [36]

In their 3-year interview study, Seymour and Hewitt (1997) found that perceptions of non-STEM academic majors offered better education options and better matched their interests (28%). areas to non-STEM areas. The second most frequently cited reason for switching to non-STEM areas has been reported. STEM majors. In addition, 38 percent of female students who remained in STEM were more likely to have a better interest in their interests. Preston’s (2004) survey of 1,688 individuals who had left the sciences also showed that 30 percent of the women had more than one reason for leaving. [36]

A review of UK patent applications in 2016 found that the proportion of new inventions registered by women was rising, but that most female inventors were active in stereotypically female fields such as “designing arms and make-up”. 94% of inventions in the field of computing, 96% in automotive applications and mining, and 99% in explosives and ammunition, were by men. [37]

Structural explanations

Rossiter offers two possible structural explanations for the low number of women in STEM fields: hierarchical segregation and territorial segregation. She describes “hierarchical segregation” as a decrease in the number of women as one “moves up the ladder of power and prestige.” [38] : 33 Rossiter also puts forth the concept of “territorial segregation” or occupational segregation , which is the idea that women “cluster” in certain fields of study. [38] : 34 For example, “women are more likely to teach and do research in the humanities and social sciences than in the natural sciences and engineering”, [38] : 34and the majority of college women tend to choose majors such as psychology, education, English, performing arts, and nursing. [39] One reason that women tend to form these “clusters” is because of a lack of support in STEM fields where they are outnumbered by men.

Although it is more likely that the role of women in the field is to be dominated by men, it is not the case, [40] and that women’s lack of interest in STEM employees and workplaces in STEM fields, to which stereotypes are disproportionately responsive. [41] [42]

Leaky pipeline

Main article: STEM pipeline

The metaphor of the leaky pipeline has been used by STEM fields at all stages of their careers. Statistician Berry Vetter claims that 280 of any 2,000 9th grade boys and 210 of any 2,000 9th grade girls will have taken enough math to pursue a career. Of these, 143 of the men and 45 of the women will major in science in college. Forty-four of these men and women will complete their degrees in science. Five of these men and one of these women will be awarded PhDs in science. [38] : 54-55

STEM fields because they believe they are not qualified for them; the study suggests that this lack could be fixed by encouraging girls in school to participate in more mathematics classes. [43] Teachers often give boys the opportunity to learn more about them. [38] : 56 Teachers are also more likely to accept questions from boys while telling girls to wait for their turns. [44] This is expected to be a reality that girls should be quiet and obedient. [45]Girls also have less laboratory experience because they are given fewer opportunities to gain such experience than are boys. [44] In middle and high school, courses dealing with mechanics and computer science and mathematics are generally taken up by male and female students. [46] Girls’ lack of opportunities to practice their math and science skills can lead to a loss of self-esteem in their math and science abilities. Such low self-esteem can prevent women and girls from entering science and math fields. Many girls will not be able to do maths for college. [44]

Schiebinger claims this leakage may be due to discrimination, both overt and covert, faced by women in STEM fields. [38] : The use of sexually discriminating standards against women, the perception of sexually discriminating against women, and the perception of inflexible working conditions. A reason women leave STEM fields is the struggle to balance family and work. Women in STEM fields that have children or need to pay for child care or a long leave of absence. When a family can not afford day care at home with children [1]. This is mainly about being paid statistically less in their careers. The man makes more money so the man goes to work and the woman gives up her career. Maternity leave is another issue in STEM fields face. As stated by the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA), “Women are required to have a child. This is one of the lowest levels of leave in the industrialized world. Unlike the United States, most countries have the right to paid time off ” [2] . Women in STEM fields who earn less than their maternal counterparts. Statistically a minute number of companies allow men to take paternity leave it is only 6 weeks long compared to women’s 12 week long maternity leave[3] . This would allow women to go to work while they are significant to other children.

The New England Journal of Medicine suggests that three-quarters of women and residents are harassed at least once during their medical training. [38] : 51 In engineering and science education, women make up almost 50 percent of non-tenure track lecturer and instructor jobs, but only 10 percent of tenured or tenure-track professors. In addition, the number of female department chairs in medical schools has not changed for the past 20 years. [44] This lack of women at the highest levels of a profession may be called ” glass ceiling “, a posited phenomenon “that keeps members of the corporate ladder qualifications or achievements. ” [47]Moreover, women who do make it to these high levels may face the difficulties associated with holding a token status. Because these highly rated women are such an anomaly, they may lack support from colleagues and may face antagonism from peers and supervisors. [45]However, recently a team of psychologists and economists conducted extensive analyzes of national data and concluded that the state of women in STEM has been greatly improved. be outdated. In general, they have had very good results in academic science, including remuneration, promotion, and job satisfaction. [48]Recently, Williams and others have shown that they are hiring simulations and in real-world academic hiring, women appear to be preferred over their counterparts. [38] : 51 [49] : 1 [50]

Gender and work

The term may be used for discrimination, but the forms of discrimination may be different. Although these women are traditionally male, they are not stereotypical, they are not real women, these stereotypes do not seem to deter women to the same degree that similar stereotypes can be found in nontraditional professions. There are ample historical evidence that women flock to male-identified occupations ounces opportunities are available. [51]On the other hand, examples of occupations changing from predominantly female to predominantly male are very rare in our history. The few existing cases-such as medicine-suggest that redefinition of the occupations as appropriately male is necessary before men will consider joining them. [52]

Although women may be affected by negative stereotypes about their masculinity, they may also experience certain benefits. Women, particularly those in male-dominated occupations, tend to hit a glass ceiling; while men in female-dominated occupations may hit a “glass escalator”. [53] While the glass ceiling can be used, the glass escalator allows a female dominated. Since STEM fields tend to be male-dominated, it is likely that women will hit the glass ceiling. [54]

Social-psychological explanations

Psychologists have studied issues related to discrimination, motivation, and performance. In recent years, social psychologists have looked at how certain social-psychological phenomena have directly applied to STEM fields, and may explain the relative lack of gender diversity within these fields.

Stereotypes and heuristics

A heuristic is a cognitive shortcut that people use to make decisions. [55] Stereotypes, or commonly held beliefs about certain groups, are often used as heuristics when making decisions in social situations. Stereotypes about what someone in STEM field should be able to look at. [56] The stereotypical scientist or individual STEM profession is usually thought to be male. [57]This article indicates that women in STEM fields may not fit individuals’ conceptualization of what a scientist, engineer, or mathematician should look like and thus be overlooked or penalized. The role of the congruity theory of perceived inequality and the role of gender inequality in stereotypes and stereotypes. [58] [59] [60] In addition, negative stereotypes about women’s quantitative abilities may be used to describe their work in STEM fields. [61]

Individuals of a particular gender are more often than not [62] [63] A study by Gaucher et al. [62] found that job advertisements, as such “leader” and “goal-oriented” associated with male stereotypes. If they are given information about a prospective student’s gender, they may infer that he or she possesses traits consisting of stereotypes for that gender. [64] Social role theory states that they are expected to display agentic qualities and women to display communal qualities. [65] These expectations can influence hiring decisions.[66] Madera et al. [66] found that women are more likely to be in the community. These researchers also found that communal characteristics were negatively related to hiring decisions in academia. [66]

Another stereotype associated with male dominated roles is that women who do these jobs are more “manly” and not considered to be “real women”, and many females are turned off at the prospect of these jobs because they do not want to appear less feminine to the opposite sex. This is a result of years of media portrayal of what women should be doing and how should women act. [67]

Discrimination

Some researchers have shown a general evaluative bias against women. [68] US universities, researchers found evidence of discrimination against ethnic minorities and women in relation to Caucasian men. [69] Whereas it has been possible to discriminate in the face of much an issue. In another study, science faculty were felt by the students who were applying for a position at their university. [70]The materials were used for each participant, but each participant was randomly assigned to either a male or a female name. The researchers found that they are more likely to be successful than the female candidate, despite the fact that the applications were identical except for the applicant’s gender. [70]Again, it is impossible to say that it is a discriminatory fashion, but it is apparent that there is still a bias against women in science fields. Another study by Ceci, Ginther, Kahn, and Williams (2014) reported that they are favored in some domains, such as, tenure rates in biology, but that the majority of domains were gender-fair; the authors argue that the underrepresentation of women in the professorial ranks has been caused by sexist hiring, promotion, and remuneration. [50]In this article, 872 faculty and 371 institutions were studied. They found that faculty strongly preferred to hire an assistant professor who was a woman over an identically-qualified competitor who was a man. Moreover, they showed that in the world of professorial hiring, there was a similar preference for hiring women dating back to the 1990s. [71]

Implicit discrimination

In highly competitive STEM fields, the backing and encouragement of a mentor can make a lot of difference in women’s decisions of whether or not to continue Pursuing a career In Their discipline [72] [73] This May be PARTICULARLY true for younger Individuals Who May face many obstacles early on in their careers. [5]Since these topics are often more important in their discipline for help and guidance, the responsibility of these potential mentors and their willingness to help is incredibly important. Regardless of whether the majority of those in STEM fields outwardly agree with the importance of increasing the representation of women in these areas, they may still be biases-conscious or not-that affect how they interact with women in their particular discipline. These two biases manifest themselves in the differential treatment of women, particularly in respect of their willingness to assist young women in their respective fields of study, and the persistence of STEM careers.

Stereotype threat

Stereotype threat arises from the fear that one’s actions will confirm a negative stereotype about one’s in-group. This fear creates additional stress, involving valuable cognitive resources and lowering task performance in the subject area. [74] [75] [76] Individuals are susceptible to stereotype threat whenever they are assessed in a domain for which there is a negative stereotype about a group to which they belong. Stereotype threat has been shown to undermine the academic performance of women and girls in mathematics and the extent to which these measures of academic achievement often underestimate the abilities of women and girls in these subjects. [35] [61]Some of these have been found to be more likely to be associated with a certain area (eg math), which are more likely to have a negative impact on the area. [76] This means that the highly motivated students are negatively affected by stereotyped minority groups and are likely to be adversely affected by stereotyped threats. [76] Negative stereotypes about girls’ capabilities in mathematics and science drastically lowering their performance in mathematics and science races and their interest in pursuing STEM career. [77]Studies have found that this difference is a difference between the two sexes. [35] This indicates that the learning environment can greatly impact women’s success in a race.

Stereotype threat has been widely criticized on a theoretical basis. [78] [79] Several attempts to replicate its experimental evidence have failed. [79] [80] [81] [82] The findings in support of the concept have been suggested to the product of publication bias . [82] [83]

Black Sheep effect

Main article: Black sheep effect

The Black Sheep is highly selective in its role as a member of the public. [84] [85] [86] [87] However, where an individual’s in-group members have average or below average qualifications, he or she is likely to evaluate them much less than out-group members with equivalent qualifications. [84] [85] [86] [87] This may be the case that they are already established in their careers, where they are more likely to be in their career. such qualifications.

Queen Bee effect

The Queen Bee is similar to the Black Sheep effect but applies only to women. It may be why it is higher-status women, particularly in male-dominated professions, may actually be less likely to help. [88] [89] The study by Ellemers et al. [89] found that while doctoral students in a number of different disciplines did not exhibit any gender differences in work commitment or work satisfaction, faculty members at the same university believed that female students were less committed to their work than male students. These were some of the most facultative members of the faculty. [89]One potential explanation for this finding is that of individual mobility for a member of the group. This implies that women who are successful in male-dominated careers do not know their own success as negative stereotypes about women’s quantitative and analytical abilities. [89] Thus, such women may actually play a role in perpetuating, rather than abolishing, these negative stereotypes.

Education and perception

Women in STEM are underrepresented by an estimated 15% from their male counterparts. The percentage of women earning PhDs in STEM fields is below 30%, while the ratio of male / female in non-STEM fields is approximately equal. [90] In a study related to the following traits as being feminine and unprofessional: socially speaking, laughing, being soft spoken, or undecided. They reported that they were more feminine and emotional, they reported that they would not be as good as they were. their colleagues. [90]It’s these stereotypes and educational differences that lead to the decline of women in STEM fields. Thomas Dee, with boys advancing in mathematics and science and girls advancing in reading. [91]

Innate vs. learned skill

Some studies [92]The explanation is that STEM fields (and especially fields like math and philosophy) are considered to be more important than those that are required (which is not necessarily the case). These researchers are looking for qualified researchers for STEM positions. In another study, it was found that women ‘s lack of mathematical confidence is what leads to society’ s perception, and women ‘s own self – belief that they do not possess the same skills as men in math / science subjects. In a study done by Ellis, Fosdick and Rasmussen, it was concluded that, without strong skills in calculus, women can not perform their male counterparts in any field of STEM,[93] . A high percentage of women who want to pursue a career in this pathway after calculus, as a calculus I was found to be one of those students and to stay away from the STEM pathway [93] . In this same study [93]It could be observed that 32% of women thought that their reason for leaving the study would be lacking in understanding the material, while only 14% of men would admit the same. The study reports that this difference in reason for leaving the calculus is thought to be developed by women in their ability, and not actual skill. This study continues to show that STEM fields [93] . It was seen in another study that their ability to rate their own ability, women will rate their own ability at a much lower level [94][Continued] STEM field [95] . Not only can these issues be obtained from these fields, but they are more strongly affected by the stereotype that they (by nature) do not possess this innate ability [96]. This negative effect is a further obstacle for women who, despite the fact that they are subject to a greater degree of The feeling of inadequacy of this stereotype, results in a weaker confidence level and overall performance, even for women in upper-level races [96] . The most ideal conditions for women when there is no mention of gender. A study [96]was able to determine how to reduce the risk of infection and can not identify women who were majoring in STEM related fields. There were three different situations, each designed to test the impact stereotype had on their performance in math. One group of women have been informed that they have previously been performed on the same calculus test. The next group was told that men and women performed at the same level. The last group was told about how to behave. Out of these situations, women performed at their best scores. In the situation where women have been told that they are men and women, the same is the case, and the mention of gender in their performance. The worst scores were from the situation where women were told that men had performed better than women. For women to pursue the male-dominated field of STEM, previous research shows that they must have more confidence in math / science ability[93] .

Strategies for increasing representation of women

There are a multitude of factors that can explain the low representation of women in STEM careers. Anne-Marie Slaughter , the first woman of the position of Director of Policy Planning for the United States Department of State , [97] has recently suggested some strategies to the corporate and political environment to support women to fulfill the best of their abilities the roles and responsibilities that they undertake. [98] The academic and research environment for women benefits while maintaining a work-life balance.

Social-psychological interventions

A number of researchers have been tested in the field of stereotypical threats for women in situations where their mathematical skills are evaluated. The hope is that by combating stereotype threat, these interventions will boost women’s performance, encouraging a greater number of them to persist in STEM careers.

One simple intervention is simply educating individuals about the existence of stereotype threat. Researchers found that women who were taught about stereotype threat and how to do it were negatively impacted by a mathematical test, even when stereotype threat was induced. These women were performed better than women who were not taught about stereotype threat before they took the math test. [99]

Role models

One of the proposed methods for alleviating stereotype threat is through introducing role models. One study found that women had a test that was tested by a female experimenter. [100] In addition, these researchers found that it was more likely that they would be more likely to learn about the subject. [100]The findings of another study suggest that role models do not necessarily have to be of high quality, but can also be drawn from peer groups. This study found that girls in same-gender groups performed better in the classroom. [101] This article explains that girls in the same-sex groups have greater access to positive role models, in the form of their female classmates who are excelling in mathematics than girls in mixed-gender groups. [101]Similarly, another experiment showed that making groups achieved salience served buffer against stereotype threat. Female participants who read about successful women, even though these successes were not directly related to performance in mathematics. [102] A study investigating the role of textbook images on science performance found that women demonstrated better understanding of a female scientist than when the text was accompanied by a counter-stereotypic image (ie, of a female scientist) was accompanied by a stereotypic image (ie, of a male scientist). [57]STEM fields. Participation in STEM fields. These researchers suggest that they are both female and male role models and are effective in recruiting women to STEM fields. [103]

Self-affirmation

Researchers have investigated the usefulness of self-affirmation in alleviating stereotype threat. What did you think about a person who did not have experience of stereotype threat? [104] A subsequent study found that students were enrolled in an introductory physics course, wrote about their most important values ​​and their performance. [105]Scholars believe that the effectiveness of such values ​​is greater than that of the individual. Supporting this hypothesis, another study found that women who were encouraged to draw self-concept maps with many nodes did not experience a performance decrease on a math test. [106] However, women who did not draw self-concept maps or did not draw maps with a few nodes did not perform well. [106] The effect of these maps on their multiple roles and identities, “that were unrelated to, and thus would not be harmed by, their performance on the math test. [106]

Organized efforts

Organizations Such As Girls Who Code , StemBox, [107] Blossom Girl Engineer, and Kode with Klossy (spearheaded by supermodel Karlie Kloss ) aim to encourage women and girls to explore male-Dominated STEM fields. Many of these organizations are interested in STEM fields. The US government has funded similar endeavors; the Department of State and the Office of Educational and Cultural Affairs. Tech., United States, United States STEM careers. [108]

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