A  job  or  occupation  is the role of a person in society. More precisely, a job is an activity, often regular and carried out in exchange for a payment (“to live”). Many people have multiple jobs (eg, parent, housewife, and employee). A person can start a job by becoming an employee, volunteering, starting a business or becoming a parent. The duration of a job can range from temporary (eg, odd hourly jobs) to a lifetime (eg, judges).

An activity that requires the mental or physical effort of a person is a job (as in “a day’s work”). If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession. Typically, a job would be a subset of someone’s career. Both may differ in that one usually  withdraws  from their career as opposed to  resigning  or  terminating  a job.

Continue reading “Jobs”

Tips to find a job

Find a hidden vacation. Many jobs can be landed before being advertised if you can access them quickly. Look into internal recruitment and look for word of mouth tips as good ways to get your foot in the door early.

Attract employers. Rather than looking for jobs, consider bringing in potential employers. Post your resume online and you could save a lot of time and effort looking for a job.

Get Networking  Many people find jobs from people they know rather than traditional means such as job ads. Talk to your family, friends and others you know about where the work might be available.

Stay positive. We all have some setbacks when we look for work. Do not take it personally if you are rejected or do not even get an answer because it’s probably not because of everything you’ve done wrong.

Target companies. Look at organizations that could make a good employer and focus on them. This may mean that you only look at the big employers in your area or it might mean that you are looking at one area, but nationally.

Continue reading “Tips to find a job”

Career Tips

“Persistence beats the resistance.” – Raoul van der Berg

Stay motivated. Create a vision chart if you need to read inspirational quotes on your morning commute. Do what you need to continue. Professionals cross the valley to reach their mountain peak – you are no exception. When things get tough, do not give in under pressure. Use your struggles as an opportunity to learn and grow professionally. Try not to complain. This will only reduce your morale and that of other members of your team.

Continue reading “Career Tips”

Global Apprenticeships Network

The Global Apprenticeship Network (GAN) is a Swiss independent and neutral not-for-profit association based in Geneva. The GAN is a network of companies, employing organizations , associations and international organizations with the mission of promoting quality apprenticeships and the goal of creating job opportunities for youth and ensuring skills for business. Continue reading “Global Apprenticeships Network”

European Training Strategy

The European Training Strategy (ETS) of the European Commission outlines findings, objective, and Measures to sustain the quality and recognition of youth work in Europe . It was introduced as part of the European Union ‘s YOUTH program (2000-2006) and is being revised to include new youth programs going into effect. [1] The most recent version adapts to Erasmus + , covering the time period between 2014 and 2020. [2] [3] Continue reading “European Training Strategy”

Education Business Partnership

Education Business Partnerships (EBPs) were, until 2011, UK-government-sponsored bodies. In 2011 the Department for Education ( DfE ) abolished funding for Education Business Links. Business Planning, Work Experience, Education and Career Education, Information and Guidance (CEIAG) by linking the worlds of business and education to young people. Around two thirds of secondary schools nationally have decided to maintain a work experience offer. Continue reading “Education Business Partnership”

Swiss referendums, 1894

Three referendums were held in Switzerland during 1894. [1] The first was held on 4 March 1993, and was rejected by a majority of voters and cantons. [1] The second was held on 3 June on a popular initiative on the right to work, and was rejected by a majority of voters and all cantons. [1] The third was held on November 4, 1894, and was popularized by the majority of voters and cantons. [1] Continue reading “Swiss referendums, 1894”

National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005

National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (or, NREGA No. 42 , later renamed the “Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act”, MGNREGA), is an Indian labor law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the ‘ right to work ‘. Continue reading “National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005”

Labor rights in Azerbaijan

Labor rights in Azerbaijan . Everyone including foreigners and non-citizens has the right to work in the Republic of Azerbaijan . [1] Nobody may be deprived of a right to work based on discrimination on citizenship, sex, race, nationality, language, place of residence, economic status, social origin, age, family circumstances, religion, political views, affiliation with trade unions or other public associations, professional standing, beliefs, or other similar factors. All persons are free to choose their workplace, profession, and activity. Everybody is free to work or not to work. Compulsory labor is forbidden by legislation in force of Azerbaijan. In other words, no one can be forced to work in the country. If one has a status of”Unemployed” the state has to pay social allowances to him or her. Furthermore, the state must endeavor to eliminate unemployment in the country. [2] Continue reading “Labor rights in Azerbaijan”

Knox v. Service Employees International Union, Local 1000

Knox v. Service Employees International Union , 567 U.S. 310 (2012), is a US constitutional law case. The United States Supreme Court held a 7-2 decision that Diana Knox and other non-members of the International Union Employees Service did not receive the required notice of a $ 12 million assessment. [1] In a tighter 5-4 ruling, the court further held the long-standing precedent, the First AmendmentThis is not a good idea to opt out of special fees was insufficient. Setting new precedent, the majority ruled that non-members will be given instructions giving them the option to opt into special fees. [2] Continue reading “Knox v. Service Employees International Union, Local 1000”

Right to work

The right to work is the concept that people have a human right to work, or engage in productive employment , and may not be prevented from doing so. The right to work is Enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and reconnu in international human rights law through ict inclusion in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights , Where the right to Work emphasizes economic, social and cultural development. Continue reading “Right to work”

Work aversion

Work aversion (or aversion to work ) is the state of prevention or not wanting to work or be employed , or the extreme preference of leisure as opposed to work. citation needed ] It can be attributed to laziness , boredom or burnout . [1] Work aversion is not a recognized psychological disorder in the DSM-IV . quote needed ] Continue reading “Work aversion”

Post-left anarchy

Post-left anarchism is a recent article in anarchist thought that promotes criticism of anarchism’s relationship to traditional leftism . Some post-leftists seek to escape the confines of ideology in general while also presenting a critique of organisms and morality . [1] Influenced by the work of Max Stirner [1] and by the Situationist International , [1] post-left anarchy is marked by a focus on social insurgency and a rejection of leftist social organization. [2] Continue reading “Post-left anarchy”

Masterpiece Cakeshop c. Colorado Civil Rights Commission

Masterpiece Cakeshop c. Colorado Civil Rights Commission is a pending case before the Supreme Court of the United States is whether creative businesses can refuse some services due to Their First Amendment rights of free speech and free exercise of religion in light of public accommodation laws-in Particular, by Refusing to Provide creative services, Such as a custom wedding cake for same-sex marriage ceremonies, on the basis of one’s religious beliefs. The Court took oral arguments on December 5, 2017, with a decision likely to be made by the end of the court’s October 2017 term at the end of June 2018. Continue reading “Masterpiece Cakeshop c. Colorado Civil Rights Commission”

Punk gutter

gutter punk is a homeless or transient individual who displays a variety of specific lifestyle traits that are often associated with the punk subculture . [1] [2] Attributes may include unkempt dreadlocks , nose rings, mohawk hairstyles and tattooed faces. [3] Gutter punks are sometimes referred to as ” crusties “, “crusty punks”, or crust punks ; traveling or traveler kids, or just travelers; and “punk hobos”, “hobo-punks”, gold hobos, among other terms. Some self-identified gutter punks may be distinguished themselves from ” crusties ” or ” travelers ” and vice versa; However, there is considerable overlap between the groups and the terms are often used interchangeably. [4] [5] [6] [7] Continue reading “Punk gutter”

Kim Davis

Kimberly Jean Davis (born Bailey , born September 17, 1965) is the county clerk for Rowan County, Kentucky , who gained international attention in August 2015 when she defied a US federal court order to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples , following the June 26, 2015, US Supreme Court decision in Obergefell c. Hodges . Davis reacted to the decision by denying marriage licenses to all couples, saying she was acting “under God’s authority”. [3] [4]Her defiance led to her being jailed, while both supporters and detractors hotly debated her stance in the national media. Marriage licenses in Rowan County are now being issued to all citizens as required by law. Continue reading “Kim Davis”

Solidarity unionism

Solidarity unionism is a model of labor organizing in which they formulate strategy and take action against the company directly. [1] It is a key pillar of anarcho-syndicalism . Organizations which use the model of solidarity unionism, such as the Industrial Workers of the World , the state of the art of the bureaucracy of the organization. [2] This is why organizations which use the solidarity unionism model often refer to other spells of labor organizing as bureaucratic unionism . Continue reading “Solidarity unionism”

Scanlon plan

The Scanlon plan has been successfully used by a variety of public and private companies for many decades. These plans combine leadership , total workforce education, and widespread employee participation with a reward system . The Scanlon plan is a savingsharing program in which employees share in pre-established cost savings, based upon employee effort. Formal employee participation is necessary with the Scanlon Plan, as well as periodic progress reporting and an incentive formula. Continue reading “Scanlon plan”

Psychological contract

psychological contract , a concept Developed in contemporary organizational research by scholar Denise Rousseau , [1] Represents the mutual beliefs, perceptions, and informal obligations entre year use and year employee. It sets the dynamics for the relationship and defines the practical reality of the work to be done. It is distinguished from the formal written contract of employment which, for the most part, only identifies mutual duties and responsibilities in a generalized form. Continue reading “Psychological contract”


Overachievers are individuals who “perform better or achieve more success than expected.” [1] The implicit presumption is that the “overachiever” is achieving superior results through excessive effort. In a teaching context, an “overachiever” is an educational label applied to students , who performs better than their peers when normalized for the instructor’s perceptions of background, intelligence or talent . In the workplace context, individuals who are deemed to be overachievers are those with the drive to complete tasks above and beyond expectations. The opposite term is underachiever . Continue reading “Overachievement”

Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction has been defined in many different ways. Some believe it is simply in the nature of a job, in other words, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision. [1] Others believe that it is not as simple as this definition suggests that multidimensional psychologicalresponses to one’s job are involved. [2] Researchers have noted that job satisfaction measures vary in the extent to which they measure feelings about the job (emotional job satisfaction). [3] or cognitions about the job (cognitive job satisfaction). [4] Continue reading “Job satisfaction”

Job lock

The term job lock is used to describe the Inability of an employee to freely leave a job Because doing so will result in the loss of employee benefits (usually health or retirement related). In a broader sense, job lock can describe the situation where an employee is being paid or has accumulated significant benefits, so that it is not a realistic option. Continue reading “Job lock”

Job attitude

job attitude is a set of evaluations of one’s job that is one’s feelings toward, beliefs about, and attachment to one’s job. [1] Overall job attitude can be conceptualized in two ways. Either an affective job satisfaction and a general or subjective feeling about a job, [2] or a composite of objective cognitive assessments of specific job facets, such as pay, conditions, opportunities and other aspects of a particular job. [3] Employees evaluate their advancement opportunities by observing their jobs, their occupation, and their employ. [1] Continue reading “Job attitude”


Goldbricking is the practice of doing business, while maintaining the appearance of working. The term originates from the confidence trick of applying a coating to a brick of worthless metal-while the worker may appear industrious on the surface, in reality they are less valuable. A modern example is staff who uses their work for personal access, which can lead to inefficiency. Goldbricking online is referred to as cyberslacking gold cyberloafing . Continue reading “Goldbricking”

Flat organization

flat organization (also known as horizontal organization or delaying ) has an organizational structure with few levels of middle management between staff and executives. An organization’s structure refers to the nature of the distribution of the positions and positions within it, also to the nature of the relationships of those units and positions. [1] Tall and flat organizations are based in the organization, and are well managed. [1] Continue reading “Flat organization”

Extra performance role

Extra-role performance Behaviors Behaviors are some of employees , qui arent share of Their formal job requirements As They can not be prescribed or required in advance for a job goal Given They help in the smooth functioning of the organization as a social system. Some of the extra role performance behaviors are: helping coworkers with a job related problem; accepting orders without fuss; tolerating temporary charges without complaint; maintaining cleanliness and physical hygiene of the workplace ; promoting a work climate that is tolerable and minimizes the distractions created by interpersonal conflict; and protecting and conserving organizationalresources etc. (Bateman & Organ, 1983). Continue reading “Extra performance role”

Employees’ Trust Fund (ETF)

The Employees’ Trust Fund (ETF) , a social security program, was established on 1 March 1981 under the Act No.46 of 1980 by the Parliament of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka [1] to promote (i) .employee ownership , employee welfare and economic democracy through participation in financing and investment (ii) .employee participation in management through the acquisition of equity interest in companies and to Provide for non-contributory benefitsto employees upon retirement . All workers ie Permanent , Temporary , Casual , Contract , Part -rate wages , Learners and Apprentices who are employed in private and public sectors are eligible to be benefited by it. [2] Continue reading “Employees’ Trust Fund (ETF)”

Employee surveys

Employee engagement is a tool that is used by the organization to improve employee engagement , employee morale , and performance . Usually answered anonymously, surveys are also used to assess the role of employees in the management of the workplace. Surveys are considered effective in this regard provided they are well-designed, effectively administered, have validity, and evoke changes and improvements. [1] Continue reading “Employee surveys”

Employee silence

Employee silence refers to situations where employees withhold information which may be of interest to the organization, but are intentionally or unintentionally. This can happen if you do not speak to a supervisor or manager. [1]

In the case of silence, they choose to hold their decisions, opinions, and concerns … withholding input that could be valuable to others or they wish they could express. [2] Continue reading “Employee silence”

Employee retention

Employee retention refers to the ability of an organization to retain its employees. It can be represented by a simple statistic (for example, a retention rate of 80% usually indicated that an organization kept 80% of its employees in a given period). However, many consider employment retention in their workforce. In this sense, retention becomes the strategy rather than the outcome. Continue reading “Employee retention”

Employee motivation

Employee motivation , ie methods for motivating employees , is an intrinsic and internal drive to the necessary effort and action towards work-related activities. It has-been Broadly defined as the “psychological strengths That determines the management of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of stress and a person’s level of persistence .” [1] Also, “Motivation can be thought of as the willingness to expend energy to achieve a goal or a reward. Motivation at work has been defined as ‘the sum of the processes that influence the arousal, direction, and maintenance of behaviors relating to work settings’. ” [2]Motivated employees are essential to the success of an organization as they are more productive at the workplace. [3] Continue reading “Employee motivation”

Employee engagement

Employee engagement is a fundamental concept in the effort to understand and describe, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the nature of the relationship between an organization and its employees . An “employee” is defined as one who is fully absorbed by and enthusiastic about their work and so takes positive action to further the organization’s reputation and interests. An employee has a positive attitude towards the organization and its values. [1] Continue reading “Employee engagement”

Employee Confidence Index

The Employee Confidence Index is a measure of their overall confidence in the economy , their employ, and their ability to find other employment . [1] The Index, like other employee confidence studies, is designed to meet the demands of the labor market. Currently, the Employee Confidence Index is only published in the United States using data collected from American citizens. Continue reading “Employee Confidence Index”

Employee assistance program

An employee assistance program (EAP) is an employee benefit program that assists employees with their own performance , health , mental and emotional well-being. EAPs offer full and confidential assessments, short-term counseling, referrals, and follow-up services for employees and their household members. EAP counselors also work in a consultative role with managers and supervisors to address employees and organizational challenges and needs. Many corporations, academic institutions, and other organizations are working with organizations to prevent and respond to situations of violence, trauma, and other emergency response situations. There is a variety of support programs offered for employees. Even though EAPs are primarily aimed at work-related problems, there are a variety of programs that can assist with problems outside of the workplace. EAPs have grown over the years, and are more desirable economically and socially. Continue reading “Employee assistance program”

Women in venture capital

Women in venture capital or VC are investors Who Provide venture capital funding to startups . Women make up a small (usually less than 10%) fraction of the venture capital private equity workforce. A source Widely used for tracking the number of women in venture capital is the Midas List qui has-been published by Forbes since 2001. One of the first women to make the list, Annette Campbell-White, has-beens Cited as an example of discrimination in venture capital. She claimed that a number of firms in the 1980s ignored her senior management experience in Hambrecht & Quist . [1] [2]In addition to Findings That women make up the majorité of early technology adopters, [3] Harvard Business SchoolProfessor Paul Gompers HAS Stated That female venture capitalists Consistently perform as well as males at large firms That Have More than one woman. [4] Continue reading “Women in venture capital”

Women in philosophy

Women are involved in philosophy throughout the field’s history. While there were women philosophers since ancient times, they were accepted as philosophers during the ancient , medieval , modern and contemporary eras, particularly during the 20th and 21st century, almost no woman philosophers have entered the philosophical Western canon . [1] [2] Continue reading “Women in philosophy”

Women in music education

Women in music education describes the role of women musicians, conductors, teachers and educational administrators in music education at the elementary school and secondary education levels. While music critics argued in the 1880s that “… women lacked the innate creativity to compose good music” due to “biological predisposition”, [1] later, it was accepted that women would have a role in music education , and they involved in this field “… to such a degree that women dominated music education during the 20th century.” [1]“Traditional accounts of the history of music education [in the US] have often neglected the contributions of women, because these texts have emphasized bands and the top leaders in hierarchical music organizations.” [2]When looking beyond these bandleaders and top leaders, women had many music education roles in … “home, community, churches, public schools, and teacher-training institutions” and “… as writers, bosses, and through their volunteer work in organizations. ” [2] Continue reading “Women in music education”

Women in law

Women in Law Describes the role played by women in the legal profession and related occupations, qui includes lawyers (also called Expired barristers , advocates , solicitors , attorneys or legal counselors), paralegals , Prosecutors (also called Expired District Attorneys Golden Crown Prosecutors ), judges , legal scholars (including feminist legal theorists ), law professors and law schooldeans. Continue reading “Women in law”

Women in Latin music

Women have made significant contributions to Latin music , a genre which predates Italian explorer Christopher Columbus ‘ arrival in Latin America in 1492 and the Spanish colonization of the Americas . The earliest musicians were native americans , hundreds of ethnic groups across the continent, whose lyrics “reflect conflict, beauty, bread, and loss that mark all human experience .” Indigenous communities reserved music for women , who were given equal opportunities to men to teach, performance, sing, and dance. Ethnomusicologists have measured ceramic, animal-bone, and cane flutes from theInca Empire which indicates a preference for women with a high vocal range . Women had equal social status , were trained, and received the same opportunities in the late 15th century. European settlers brought patriarchal, machismo ideologies to the continent, replacing the idea of ​​equality between men and women. They have a native music with “savagery” and European music with “civilization”. Female musicians tend to be darker-skinned as a result of the slave trade (which increased the population of African Slavs), and contemporary society denigrated music as a profession. Latin music became Africanized, with syncopated rhythms and call-and-response ; European settlement introduced harmony and the Spanish decima song form. Continue reading “Women in Latin music”

Women in film

Women in film describes the role of women as film directors , actresses , cinematographers , film producers , film critics , and other film industry professions. The work of women film scholars, including feminist film theorists is also described. Women are statistically underrepresented in creative positions in the center of the US film industry, Hollywood . This underrepresentation has been called the ” celluloid ceiling “, a variant on the employment discrimination term ” glass ceilingIn 2013, the “… top-paid actors … made 2½ times as much money as the top-paid actresses.” [3] “[O] lder [male] actors make more than their female equals” in age, with “female movie stars mak [ing] the most money on average for movie at age 34, while male stars earn the most at 51.” [4] In 2013, 9% of directors were women. the Academy Award for Best Director for the first time When Kathryn Bigelow won for The Hurt Locker (2009). [5] Continue reading “Women in film”

Union Colliery Co of British Columbia v Bryden

Union Colliery Co of British Columbia v Bryden [1] is a famous Canadian constitutional decision of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council where the exclusivity principle inCanadian federalism and pith and substance analysis was first articulated. Continue reading “Union Colliery Co of British Columbia v Bryden”

Statistical discrimination (economics)

Statistical discrimination is an economic theory of racial or gender inequality based on stereotypes . According to this theory, inequality may exist and persist between demographic groups even when economic agents (consumers, workers, employers, etc.) are rational and non-prejudiced. This type of treatment is labeled “statistical” because stereotypes may be based on the discriminated group’s average behavior. Continue reading “Statistical discrimination (economics)”

Removing the glass ceiling from the United States

The glass ceiling , in terms of job positions, can be defined as an intangible barrier within a hierarchy that prevents women and minorities from being promoted to upper-level positions. [1] Removing the glass ceiling is the act of taking away this invisible barrier for women and minorities to move up to upper-level positions. In the US, only 5% of women are running a Fortune 500 company which is equivalent to twenty-five companies. In the US, feminists will use the term minorities, minorities, and minorities. Continue reading “Removing the glass ceiling from the United States”

Rangers FC signing policy

Between the 1920s and 1989, Scottish club football club Rangers FC had an unwritten rule of the club that would have been known to Roman Catholic . [1] Rangers were viewed as a ” Protestant Club” and discussed in their Old Firm rival, Celtic who were viewed as having a Catholic club . The policy was ended in 1989 by Rangers manager Graeme Souness when he signed Mo Johnston . Continue reading “Rangers FC signing policy”

Pao v. Kleiner Perkins

Ellen Pao v. Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers LLC and DOES 1-20 is a lawsuit filed in San Francisco County Superior Court under the law of California by executive Ellen Pao for gender discrimination against her employer,Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers . Overlapping with a number of condemning studies on the representation of women in venture capital, the case was closely followed by reporters, advocacy groups and Silicon Valley executives. [1] Given the tendency for similar cases to reach out, Pao v. Kleiner Perkins described it as a landmark trial once in February 2015. [2][3] On March 27, 2015 the jury found in favor of Kleiner Perkins on all counts. Continue reading “Pao v. Kleiner Perkins”

New South Wales selection bias

New South Wales selection is biased by selectors of the Australian cricket teams towards players from New South Wales . It was exemplified in a quote by former South Australian captain David Hookes who said, “When they give out the baggy blue cap in New South Wales, they give you a baggy green one in a brown paper bag to save making two presentations “. [1] This is an example of confirmation biasand Hookes’ How did they come into the world when they were selected by the US? and / or One-Day team. The claims persist in spite of the fact that New South Welshman has occupied a position on the National Selection Panel since John Benaud in 1994. citation needed ] Continue reading “New South Wales selection bias”

Motherhood penalty

The motherhood penalty is a term coined by Sociologists Who That argues in the workplace , working mothers encounter systematic Disadvantages in pay, Perceived competence, and benefits relative to childless women. Specifically, women may suffer a per-child wage penalty, resulting in a gap between non-mothers and mothers who are larger than the gap between men and women. They may also be worse at job-site evaluations than they are less dependent on, less dependable, and less authoritative than non-mothers. Thus, mothers may experience disadvantages in terms of hiring, pay, and daily job experience. [1] [2] [3]In attendance, non-mothers offered an average of $ 11,000 more than mothers. [4] An audit study also showed that prospective employers were less likely to call back mothers for interviews than non-mothers. [5] The motherhood wage penalty is not limited to the United States, Japan, South Korea, United Kingdom, Poland, and Australia. The penalty has not shown any signs of declining over time. [6] Continue reading “Motherhood penalty”

Maternal wall

The maternal wall is a term referring to stereotypes and various forms of discrimination . Women hit the maternal wall when they encounter discrimination because of past, present, or future pregnancies because they have taken one or more maternity leaves. [1] Women may also be discriminated against when they opt for part-time or flexible work schedules. [1] Maternal wall discrimination is not limited to childcare responsibilities. [2] Both men and women with caregiving responsibilities, such as taking care of a sick parents or spouse, may also result in maternal wall discrimination.[2] As such, maternal wall discrimination is also described as family responsibilities discrimination . [3] [4] [5] Research suggests that the maternal wall is made up of employing stereotypes and gender expectations. Continue reading “Maternal wall”

Marriage bar

marriage bar is the custom and practice of restricting the employment of married women in general or in particular professions or occupations; and sometimes the practice called for employment of a woman on her marriage, especially in teaching, clerical and other occupations, and sometimes widowed women with children. [1] [2] [3] Continue reading “Marriage bar”

MacBride Principles

The MacBride Principles – consistant en nine fair employment principles – are a corporate code of conduct for United States companies doing business in Northern Ireland and Have Become the standard for all US Congressional aid to, or for economic dealings with, Northern Ireland. They were promoted by Seán McManus and the Irish National Caucus , and by John Finucanne and the American Irish Political Education Committee (PEC), and were drafted by Nobel laureate Seán MacBride (founding member of Amnesty International ), and were launched in November 1984 . [1] Continue reading “MacBride Principles”

LGBT employment discrimination in the United States

The regulation of LGBT employment discrimination in the United States varies by jurisdiction. Many, but not all, states and localities prohibit bias in hiring, promotion, job assignment, termination, and compensation, as well as harassment on the basis of one’s sexual orientation . Fewer prolonged the protections to cover sexual identity . [1] Some cover government employees do not extend their protections to the private sector. Protections at the national level are limited. There is no federal statute of employment discrimination discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. However, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission(EEOC) Title VII Interpreters of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to cover discrimination against LGBT employees, “allegations of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. [2] This interpretation is in essence the essence of the law of discrimination in relation to the civil rights act of 1964. [3] In 2012 the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ruled that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 does not allow gender identity-based employment discrimination because it is a form of sex discrimination. [4] Then in 2015, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission concluded thatTitle VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 does not allow sexual orientation discrimination in employment because it is a form of sex discrimination. [5] [6] However, these rulings, while persuasive, may not be binding on short. [7] Continue reading “LGBT employment discrimination in the United States”

Labor discrimination

Labor discrimination as defined by Kenneth Arrow is “the valuation in the marketplace of personal characteristics of the worker who is unrelated to worker productivity”. [1]It can be understood as the differentiation of workers based on color, race, origin, gender etc. that can be classified as having a role in determining its or her productivity. There are many dimensions that need to be considered when discussing such discrimination. The most obvious is that the group discriminated against is paid less for identical jobs. This is the most prevalent form of discrimination. The attempt to combat such a form of discrimination can be seen in other countries. Examples of this are the Equal Pay Act (1970), Sex Discrimination Act(1975), and Employment Protection Act (1975), but the effectiveness of such legislation is subject to much debate. Secondly, that the level of unemployment for the group in general is higher than that of other groups that do not face such discrimination. Thirdly, there is discrimination in the employment of persons with disabilities, where they are discriminated against. with equal productivity. When this happens, the group is employed for a job or is more often than not qualified for it, simply because it is more likely that it will not be able to do so. [2]A general misconception prevails that discrimination is only practiced by the employer. This is not true. In addition to employing discrimination, customer discrimination can also exist in the market. Customers may prefer to have a certain kind of people. [3]

Glass escalator

The term ” glass escalator ” was introduced by Christine L. Williams in her research “The Glass Escalator: Hidden Advantages for Men in the” Female “Profession” [1] published in August of 1992. The glass escalator refers to the way men, namely, heterosexual white men, are more likely to dominate sex-segregated occupations. It is most present in lower levels of the profession. This idea is a parallel to the popular idea of ​​the glass ceiling , where women face advancement in the workplace. Continue reading “Glass escalator”

Executive Order 10925

Executive Order 10925 , signed by President John F. Kennedy on March 6, 1961, required government contractors to “take affirmative action to ensure that they are employed during employment without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin. ” [1] Established the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity (PCEEO), which was chaired by Vice President Lyndon Johnson . [2] Vice Chair and Secretary of Labor Arthur Goldberg was in charge of the Committee’s operations. [2] This first implementation of Affirmative Actionto be discriminated against. [3] Continue reading “Executive Order 10925”

Equal employment opportunity

Equal employment opportunity is equal opportunity in employment . The United States Employment Opportunity Commission , which is established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to assist in the protection of United States employees from discrimination. [1] The law is the first federal law to protect the employment of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin (Public Law 88-352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat 253, 42 USC Sec 2000e and seq.). [2]Employment discrimination, as well as firing, hiring, promotion, transfer or employment, and discrimination in employment, or classification. The Title is relevant in the case of businesses that have fifteen or more employees. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is section 705 of the title. [3] Continue reading “Equal employment opportunity”

EQUAL Community Initiative

EQUAL was a Community Initiative within the European Social Fund of the European Union . It concerns “transnational co-operation to promote new ways of combating all forms of discrimination and inequalities in connection with the labor market”. [1] It ran from 2001 till 2007 with a budget of some $ 3 billion of EU resources, matched by a similar sum from national resources. Continue reading “EQUAL Community Initiative”

Employment discrimination law in the European Union

Employment discrimination law in the European Union including two directives . The directives were agreed by the EU member states in 2000. [1] The European Parliament Committee on Employment and Social Affairs is responsible for oversight. [2] Continue reading “Employment discrimination law in the European Union”

Employment discrimination against persons with criminal records in the United States

Employment discrimination contre persons with criminal records in the United States has-been illegal since passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Employers may lawfully consider an applicant’s or employee’s criminal conviction (s) for employment purposes eg, hiring, retention, promotion, benefits, and delegated duties. That said, blanket policies or practices eg, exclusion of all the demands of the world. Likewise, policies or practices that are not narrowly restrictive may be necessary to prevent violations of the law. Title VII applies to businesses and defines two types of discrimination, disparate treatment and disparate impact. TeaEqual Employment Opportunity Commission has been enforcing Title VII since it came into effect in 1965. It has periodically issued an enforceable application of the law. in April 2012 it is published in the United States of America. The size of the problem is unknown. Continue reading “Employment discrimination against persons with criminal records in the United States”

Credit history

credit history is a record of a borrower’s repayment of debts. [1] A credit report is a record of the borrower’s credit history, credit card companies, collection agencies, and governments. [2] A borrower’s credit score is the result of a mathematical algorithm applied to a credit report and other sources of information to predict future delinquency. [2] Continue reading “Credit history”

Black conductors

African conductors are musicians of African , Caribbean , African-American ancestry and other members of the African diaspora who are musical ensemble leaders who live classical music performances, such as an orchestral or choral concerts, or jazz ensemble big band concerts by way of visible gestures with the hands, arms, face and head. Conductors of African descent are rare, as are the vast majority are male and Caucasian . Continue reading “Black conductors”

Employment discrimination

Employment discrimination is a form of discrimination based on race , gender , religion , national origin , physical or mental disability , age , sexual orientation , and gender identity by employers. Earnings differentials or occupational differentiation is not in favor of self-evidence of employment discrimination. Discrimination can be intended and involve disparate treatment of a group or unintended, yet create disparate impact for a group. Continue reading “Employment discrimination”

The Service Industry

The Service Industry is an Austin, Texas -based pop rock band. They are known for their songs about the labor force and the drudgery of working at blue-collar jobs . [1] They released their debut album, Ranch Is the New French , in 2006, and released three additional albums since then. The band’s lineup fluctuates between six and nine members. [2] Continue reading “The Service Industry”

New Escapologist

New Escapologist was a UK-based lifestyle magazine between 2007 and 2017, now continues online as monthly subscription essays. The magazine and the current essay series take the stance That work HAS too central a position in life and Western That Work, consumption and pursuit of social status Too Often take precedence over happiness ,liberty , and unstructured leisure . [1] Simple living , creativity and Epicureanism are offered as solutions to the problems of overwork and overconsumption . [2] Continue reading “New Escapologist”


Autonomism or autonomist Marxism is a set of anti-authoritarian left-wing political and social movements and theories. [1] [2] [3] As a theoretical system, it first emerged in Italy in the 1960sfrom workerist ( operaismo ) communism . Later, post-Marxist and anarchist tendencies became significant after influence of the Situationists , the failure of Italian far-left movements in the 1970s, and the emergence of a number of important theorists including Antonio Negri, who had contributed to the 1969 founding of Potere Operaio , Mario Tronti , Paolo Virno and Franco “Bifo” Berardi . Continue reading “Autonomism”

Aquis Search

Aquis Search is an executive search and recruitment agency based in Hong Kong, founded in 2009, specializing in corporate affairs , compliance , finance & accounting , human resources and corporate services , investment management , IT risk and cyber security and legal and risk management . The company has offices in Beijing , Delhi , Hong Kong , London, Mumbai , Shanghai , Singapore and Taipei. The firm handles assignments across Asia. Continue reading “Aquis Search”

Speak With A Geek

Speak With A Geek (SWAG) is an American technical recruiting agency headquartered in San Francisco , California . Geek is a mobile app based company that uses a “peer to peer” model similar to Uber designed to connect IT technicians to freelance jobs and vice versa. SWAG claims there are 3 million vetted users worldwide, but that number is unconfirmed. Speak With A Geek is available in the United States , Canada , Western Europe , and Asia . [1]

South West African Native Labor Association

The South West African Native Labor Association (SWANLA) Was a labor recruitment organization or recruited qui Primarily Ovambo people from Ovamboland in northern Namibia to work in the diamond mines in Namibia’s southern ǁKaras Region . It was infamous for its use of contract labor and human rights abuses among those employed in the mines. It was established in 1943 during World War II to accommodate a rising demand for labor. [1]SWANLA was a driving force in the creation of opposition political movements, including the future liberation movement and ruling party of Namibia South West People’s Organization(SWAPO). [1] Continue reading “South West African Native Labor Association”

To Work South Roads

Routes to Work South is a charity based in South Lanarkshire , Scotland qui helps unemployed people in the area into employment . It seeks to improve the quality of employment and to improve the quality of life. [1] South Lanarkshire residents are often referred to the organization by their local Job CenterBut they are also encouraged to contact the service on their own initiative. Employers may also find useful information to help them in their employment and recruitment, and in their future careers. Road To Work South has offices in Cambuslang , East Kilbride , Hamilton and Lanark . Continue reading “To Work South Roads”

Robert Half International

Robert Half , most recently, Robert Half International , is an American human resource consulting firm based in Menlo Park, California . citation needed ] It is a member of the S & P 500 , citation needed ] and is credited as the world’s largest and largest accounting and finance staffing firm, with over 400 locations worldwide. citation needed ] In 2009, the company was ranked first in the temporary aid industry on Fortune magazine’s list of World’s Most Admired Companies, [3] [ third-party source needed] and was ranked 9th by global staffing revenue. [4] Continue reading “Robert Half International”

Riviera Partners

Riviera Partners is a provider of technical search and recruiting services, specializing in talent acquisition for emerging growth companies. Since its inception, Riviera Partners has focused on building technology primarily for startup companies. Riviera Partners’ clientele includes, Among Others, ServiceNow , Xoom , One Kings Lane , Uber , Path , Okta , Pure Storage , Twitter , LinkedIn , Dropbox , Pinterest , and Zappos . [1] Continue reading “Riviera Partners”

James A. Reed (contractor)

James A. Reed MA MBA FCIPD (born April 1963 in Woking, Surrey ) is the Chairman and Chief Executive of the Reed group of companies, which includes Reed Specialist Recruitment, Reed Learning, Reed in Partnership and Reed Online. He is the son of Sir Alec Reed , who founded the company in 1960.

Harvey Nash

Harvey Nash is a global recruitment consultant and IT outsourcing service provider. They are listed on the London Stock Exchange [3] and operate from 40 offices, covering the United States, Europe and Asia and are a constituent of the FTSE SmallCap Index . [4] Harvey Nash acquired Beaumont Japan in August 2014, and the company was subsequently rebranded to the Harvey Nash Group. [5] Harvey Nash delivers executive search and leadership consulting services at director, vice president, general management and board levels. [5] Continue reading “Harvey Nash”

Elwood Staffing

Elwood Staffing is a privately owned corporation offering temporary staffing , temporary-to-hire staffing, contract staffing, direct placement staffing, and payrolling services. [1]Headquartered in Columbus, Indiana , Elwood Staffing operates offices throughout the United States. Elwood’s services match job seekers with employment in the following areas: manufacturing & production, warehouse & distribution, automotive, engineering, oil & gas, construction, information technology, skilled trades, administrative & clerical, and customer service. Continue reading “Elwood Staffing”

Challenger, Gray & Christmas

Challenger, Gray & Christmas , with headquarters located in Chicago, Illinois , is the oldest executive outplacement firm in the US. It has offices throughout North America. James E. Challenger is the founder of the company and the outplacement industry. SHRM (The Society for Human Resources Management) is recognized in 1996 as the creator and pioneer of the outplacement field. Continue reading “Challenger, Gray & Christmas”

Bangladesh Association of International Recruiting Agencies

Bangladesh Association of International Recruiting Agencies [1] ( Baira ) is an organization of national level with international its reputation of co-operation and welfare of the migrant workforce as well as icts Approximately 700 member agencies in cooperation with and the support from the Government of Bangladesh . Continue reading “Bangladesh Association of International Recruiting Agencies”

Adecco Staffing, USA

Adecco Staffing, USA is the second largest provider of recruitment and staffing services in the United States, [2] offering human resource services such as temporary staffing, permanent placement, outsourcing, career transition or outplacement. [3] Based in Jacksonville, FL, it serves small- and mid-sized businesses as Fortune 500 companies. [3] Continue reading “Adecco Staffing, USA”

Employment in Singapore

Singapore , with total land area of ​​719.1 square kilometers, has total population of 5.535 million as of 2015. The population consists of 3.902 million residents and the remaining non-residents. [1] The average population per square kilometer is 7,697, one of the most dense population in the world, third after Monaco and Macau [2] Continue reading “Employment in Singapore”

Substitute teacher

substitute teacher is a person who teaches a school class when the teacher is unavailable; eg, because of illness, personal leave, or other reasons. “Substitute teacher” (usually abbreviated as “sub”) is the most commonly used phrase in the United States , Canada , India and Ireland , while supply teacher is the most commonly used term in Great Britain and the Canadian province of Ontario . Common synonyms for substitute teacher include teacher or teacher (used inAustralia and New Zealand ) and “emergency teacher” (used in some of the United States ). [1] Other terms, such as “guest teacher”, are also used by some schools or districts. Regional variants in terminology are common, such as the term teacher on call ( TOC ) in the Canadian province of British Columbia and occasional in Ontario. Continue reading “Substitute teacher”

Musician Session

Session musicians , aussi called Expired studio musicians , musicians are hired to perform in recording sessions as well as live performances. Session musicians are usually not permanent members of a musical ensemble band. They can accompany many singers and soloists. They work behind the scenes and rarely achieve individual fame in their own right as soloists or bandleaders . However, top session musicians are well-known within the music industry . Some session musicians form rhythm sections who make recordings together. Some of these have become well-known, such as The Wrecking Crew and Motown’s The Funk Brothers . Continue reading “Musician Session”

Pickup group

pickup group is a group of professional musicians , who may be session musicians who are hired to play for a limited time period of a single concert or sound recording session for several weeks of shows-before disbanding. Pickup groups are formed to play in the orchestra for musical theater performances, operas , or operettas , accompaniment jazz singers or instrumental soloists, and act as a temporary backup bandfor a pop singer for a ride. As well, pickup groups are hired to perform at social events such as weddings or holiday parties. The size of these sets ranges from a three-or four-member rock set or jazz group (eg, a rhythm section , organ trio or backing band ) or classical chamber ensemble (eg, a string quartet ) to a 20-piece jazz big band , a 20-27 member pit orchestra for a Broadway musical or a 30-100 member orchestra . Continue reading “Pickup group”

ID Medical Group Ltd

ID Medical Group (commonly known as ID Medical ) is a healthcare recruitment company headquartered in Milton Keynes, UK . The company exists to supply locum doctors, nurses, allied health professionals and clerical staff to NHS hospitals including private medical sector organizations throughout the United Kingdom. The company was listed in The Sunday Times ‘best mid-sized companies for work in 2014’ citation needed ] and was announced the winner of the prestigious ‘Top 250’ RI (Recruitment International)] recruitment company award in 2013. Continue reading “ID Medical Group Ltd”


freelancer or freelance worker is a Commonly used term for a person who is self-employed and Is not Necessarily committed to a Particular use long-term. Freelance workers are sometimes represented by a company or a temporary agency that resells freelance labor to clients; others work independently or professional associations or websites to get work. Continue reading “Freelancer” is a British- based freelance marketplace where people can trade skills and services. [1] First launched in 2011, the website hosts a variety of services, from tech jobs like SEO specialist to bizarre things like having a job with a quick clip advertising business. [1] [2] Buyers of services are mainly start-up companies looking to save on business costs. [3] Continue reading “”

Dialect coach

dialect coach is an acting coach who helps an actor design the voice and speech of a character in the context of an on-camera (movie, television or commercial), stage (theater, musical theater, opera, etc.), radio gold voiceover animationproduction. The dialect coach often does original research on dialects and speech patterns, prepares training materials, provides instruction and works on lines with the actor. A dialect coach will give the actor feedback focusing on issues of credibility, consistency, and clarity. A dialect coach may also be helpful to help you understand your voice, or to help you improve your voice. language. Continue reading “Dialect coach”

Contract killing

Contract killing is a form of murder in which one party hires another party to kill a target individual or group of people. It involves an illegal agreement between two parties or other parties. Either party may be a person, group, or an organization. In the United States, the crime is punishable by 15 years to life in a state penitentiary. Contract killing has been associated with organized crime , government conspiracy and with vendettas . For example, in the United States, the gang Murder, Inc. committed Hundreds of murders On Behalf of theNational Crime Syndicate during the 1930s and 1940s. Continue reading “Contract killing”

Backup band

backing band or backup band is a musical ensemble that accompanies a lead singer at a live performance or on a recording . [1] [ better source needed ] A backup band can also accompany an instrumental soloist, such as a lead guitarist or solo fiddler , though all-instrumental performances, with no singing, are not common in popular music and traditional music . This can be an established, long-standing group that has little or no change in membership, or it may be an ad hocgroup assembled for a single show or a single recording. original research? ] Ad hoc or “pickup” groups are often made up of musicians . Continue reading “Backup band”

Temporary work

Temporary work or temporary employment (also called employment) refers to an employment situation where the working arrangement is limited to a certain period of time based on the needs of the employing organization. Temporary employees are sometimes called “contractual”, “seasonal”, “interim”, “casual staff”, “outsourcing”, “freelance”; the word may be shortened to “time”. In some instances, temporary, highly skilled professionals (particularly in the white-collar worker fields, such as law , engineering , and accounting ) refer to themselves as consultants . Continue reading “Temporary work”


ThinkTalk is a television program for college students based in Washington, DC . ThinkTalk is a show where students get high-profile interview professionals about their careers. The show is hosted by Zack Sherwood and Erika Thomas. Listeners can submit questions for an upcoming guest by visiting the guest’s feature page. Listeners have the option of submitting a text (e-mail) question or a video (webcam) question. Continue reading “ThinkTalk”

Organization workshop

The Organization workshop ( OW ) – or “Laboratorio Organizacional” (LO) in both Portuguese and Spanish – is a CHAT -based learning event where participants master new organizational and social skills through a learning-by-doing approach. It is aimed at large groups of unemployed and underemployed, with a large number of LLEs. The OW addresses locally identified problems which can only be solved by collaborating groups. During a workshop participants form a temporary enterprise which they themselves manage, an enterprise which contracts to do work at market rates. Once the workshop is temporary, it is over, organizational, management and vocational skills can be used. Continue reading “Organization workshop”

Multiple careers

A career includes career opportunities that can be identified with a particular job or profession , having multiple careers is the growing trend in the late 20th century and early 21st century. These multiple careers can be competitor or sequential (where a worker adopts a new career after having worked for some time in another career). Both may occur for different reasons. Continue reading “Multiple careers”

Global Career Development Facilitator

The Global Career Development Facilitator (GCDF) certification is an evolution of the Career Development Facilitator (CDF) certification developed in response to a RFP from the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (NOICC). The winning proposal went to Oakland University in Michigan where the initial development began under the leadership of Howard Splete. In 2000, when NOICC was applied to the USDOL, the curriculum was awarded to the National Career Development Association (NCDA) to promote and train practitioners. [1]The Working Ahead Curriculum was the second program, developed at the Heldrich Center for Workforce Development, with a linkage to the USDOL resources-different from the first program with greater emphasis towards USDOE resources. Since then, many programs have been developed. The National Employment Counseling Association [2] in partnership with Life Strategies, following the Heldrich Center model, developed with full instructor support. [3] Graduates from approved programs for GCDF certification from the Center for Credentialing in Education (CCE), an affiliate of the National Board for Certified Counselors(Center for Credentialing in Education, 1997). The credential Recognizes the education and experience Of Those working in occupations like CDF careers advisory services and employment services. GCDF have successfully completed an approved CDF training program and have met and verified specific educational and experience requirements. [4] Continue reading “Global Career Development Facilitator”

Extreme careerism

According to Bratton and Kacmar’s article, The Dark Side of Impression Management , extreme careerism is the propensity to pursue career advancement, power , and prestige through any positive or negative performance that is deemed necessary. These “non-performance” based activities are activities in which an employee can easily manipulate the person who is trying to impress. [1] Extreme careerism has become more common in the business and organizational world in the 1990s and 2000s. citation needed ] In the United States, seventeen additional workdays have been added to the calendar since 1994.quote needed ] Continue reading “Extreme careerism”

Effective altruism

Effective altruism is a philosophy and social movement that aims to be more effective and efficient. [1] Effective altruism encourages individuals to consider all causes and actions and to act in the most positive way, based on their values. [2] It is the broad, evidence-based approach that distinguishes effective altruism from traditional altruism or charity . [3] Continue reading “Effective altruism”

Career management

Career management is the combination of structured planning and the active management of one’s own professional career. Career management was first defined in a social work by Mary Valentich as the implementation of a career strategy (Valentich & Gripton, 1978). Career orientation refers to the overall design or pattern of one’s career, shaped by particular goals and interests and identifiable by particular positions that embody these goals and interests. Career strategy to the individual’s general approach to the achievement of career goals, and to the specificity of the goals themselves. Two general strategies are adaptive and planned. Career tactics are actions to maintain oneself in a diverse employment situation. Tactics may be more or less assertive, Continue reading “Career management”

Career assessment

These are the tools that are designed to help individuals understand how to use a variety of personal attributes (ie, data values, preferences, motivations, skills and competences), and their potential success and satisfaction with different career options and work environments. Career assessments have played a critical role in career development and the economy in the last century (Whiston and Rahardja, 2005). Assessments of Some or all of These attributes are Often used by Individuals or organisms, Such As university career service centers, career counselors , outplacement companies, corporate human resources staff, executive coaches, vocational rehabilitation counselors, and guidance counselors to help individuals make more informed career decisions. Continue reading “Career assessment”

Academic careerism

Academic careerism is the tendency of academics ( professors specifically and intellectuals) to pursue their own self-enrichment and self-advancement at the expense of honest inquiry, and research and dissemination of truth to their students and society. Such careerism has been criticized by thinkers from Socrates in Ancient Athens to Russell Jacoby in the present. Continue reading “Academic careerism”


career is an individual’s metaphorical “journey” through learning, work and other aspects of life . There are a number of ways to define a career, and the term is used in a variety of ways.

Definitions and etymology

The word career is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as a person’s “race or progress through life”. In this definition is shown to a range of aspects of an individual’s life, learning and work. Career est Understood to frequently relates to the working aspects of an individual’s life as eg in career woman . A third way in which the term is used to describe an occupation or a profession that is usually involved in training or training, [1] and is considered to be a person’s lifework. [2] In this case “a career” is seen as a sequence of related jobs usually pursued within a single industry or sector “a career in education” or “a career in the building trade”.

Historic changes in careers

For a pre-modernist notion of “career”, compare cursus honorum .

By the late 20th century, a wide-range of choices (especially in the ranks of potential professions ) and more Widespread education HAD allowed it To Become feasible to map (Gold design) has career: in this respect the careers of the career counselor and of the career advisor have grown up. It is also not uncommon for adults in the late 20th century or early 20th century to have dual or multiple careers , either sequentially or concurrently. Thus, professional identities have become hyphenated or hybridized to reflect this shift in work ethic. Economist Richard Florida notes this trend and more specifically among the ” creative class “.

Career management

Career management describes the active and purposeful management of a career by an individual. Ideas of what comprised “career management skills” are Described by the Blueprint model (in the United States, Canada, Australia, Scotland and England [3] ) [4] and the Seven C’s of Digital Career Literacy (SPECIFICALLY Relating to the Internet skills ). [5]

Key skills include the ability to reflect on one’s current career, research the labor market , determine whether education is necessary, find openings, and make career changes.

Career choice

Further information: List of Largest Employers and List of Professions

According to Behling and others, an individual’s decision to join a firm is one of the three factors viz. objective factor, subjective factor and critical contact. [6]

  • Objective factor theory assumes that the applicants are rational. The choice, therefore, is exercised after an objective assessment of the tangible benefits of the job. Factors may include the salary, other benefits, rental, opportunities for career advancement, etc.
  • Subjective factor theory suggests that decision making is dominated by social and psychological factors. The status of the job, the reputation of the organization and other similar factors plays an important role.
  • Critical contact theory advances the idea that a candidate’s observations while interacting with the organization plays a vital role in decision making. For example, how to recruit in the response to the candidate, the promptness of response and similar factors are important. This theory is more valid with experienced professionals.

These theories assume that candidates have a free choice of employers and careers. In reality the scarcity of jobs and strong competition for desirable jobs The decision making process. In many markets employees work because they have been forced to accept anything. Additionally, Ott-Holland and colleagues found that culture can have a major influence on career choice, depending on the type of culture. [7]

When choosing a career that’s best for you, according to US News, there are multiple things to consider. Some of those include: natural talents, work style, social interaction, work-life balance, whether or not you are looking to give back, whether you are comfortable in the public eye, dealing with stress or not, and finally, how much money you want to make. If you want to change your mind, here’s another option: you can make a change in your mind. In today’s workplace, you do not need to go anywhere in your life. Make a smart decision, and plan to re-evaluate the line based on your long-term objectives. [8]

Career (occupation) changing

Changing occupation is an important aspect of career and career management. Over a lifetime, both the individual and the labor market will change; It is to be expected that many people will change occupations during their lives. Data collected by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics by the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in 1979. [9]

A survey conducted by Right Management [10] suggests the following reasons for career changing.

  • The downsizing or restructuring of an organization (54%).
  • New challenges or opportunities that arise (30%).
  • Poor or ineffective leadership (25%).
  • Having a poor relationship with a manager (s) (22%).
  • For the improvement of work / life balance (21%).
  • Contributions are not being recognized (21%).
  • For better compensation and benefits (18%),
  • For better alignment with personal and organizational values ​​(17%).
  • Personal strengths and capabilities are not good with an organization (16%).
  • The financial instability of an organization (13%).
  • An organization relocated (12%).

According to an article on, one of three people is currently employed (as of 2008). [10]

Career success

Career success is a term used frequently in academic and popular writing about career. It refers to the extent and ways in which an individual can be described as successful in his or her life. [11]

Traditionally, career success has often been thought of in terms of earnings and / or status within an occupation or organization. This can be expressed in absolute terms (eg the amount a person earns) or in relative terms. Earnings and conditions are examples of objectives of success, where “objective” means that they can be factually verified, and are not strictly a matter of opinion.

Many observers argue that careers are less predictable than they once were, due to the rapid pace of economic change. [12] This means that career management is more obviously the responsibility of the individual rather than his or her employing organization, because a “job for life” is a thing of the past. This is more emphasis on subjective criteria of career success. [13] These include job satisfaction, career satisfaction, work-life balance, a sense of personal achievement, and attaining work that is consistent with one’s personal values. A person’s assessment of his or her career is likely to be influenced by social comparisons, such, friends, or contemporaries at school or college have done. [14]

The amount and type of career success has been achieved by several forms of career capital. [15] These include social capital , the human capital (demonstrable abilities, experiences and qualifications), economic capital (money and other materials resources) , and cultural capital (having skills, attitudes or general know-how to operate effectively in a particular social context). [16]

Career support

There are a range of different educational, counseling, and human resource management interventions that can support individuals to develop and manage their careers. Career support is commonly offered while people are in education, when they are transitioning to the labor market, when they are changing career, during periods of unemployment, and during transition to retirement. Support can be offered by career professionals, other professionals or by non-professionals such as family and friends. Professional career is known as “career guidance” in the OECD definition of career guidance:

The activities may take place on an individual or group basis, and may be face-to-face or at a distance (including helplines and web-based services). They include career information provision, assessment and self-assessment tools, counseling interviews, career education programs, taster programs, work search programs, and transition services. ” [17]

However, this use of the term “career guidance” may be confusing as it is commonly used to describe the activities of career counselors .

Provision of career support

Career support is offered by a range of different mechanisms. Much career support is informal and provided through personal networks or existing relationships such as management. There is a market for private career support, however, the bulk of career support is provided by the public sector. quote needed ]

Types of career support

Key types of career support include:

  • Career information describes information that supports career and learning choices. An important sub-set of career information is labor market information (LMI), such as employment of various occupations, employment rates in various occupations, and training programs.
  • Career assessments are tests that come in a variety of forms and rely on both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Career assessments can help them identify and better articulate their unique interests, personality, values, and skills to a certain career. Some skills that career can be determined by job-specific skills, transferable skills, and self-management skills. [18] Career assessments can also provide a window of opportunity for the learner, the experience, the training and the training. [19] Career counselors , executive coaches, educational institutions, career development centers, and outplacement companies .
  • Career counseling assesses people’s interests, personality, values ​​and skills, and helps them explore career options and research graduate and professional schools. Career counseling provides one-on-one or professional assistance in the field of decision making.
  • Career education describes how they come to learn about themselves, their careers and the world of work. There is a strong tradition of career education in schools, [20] however, career growth can also occur in a wider range of other contexts and further education and the workplace. A common used framework for careers education is DOTS which stands for decision learning (D), opportunity awareness (O), transition learning (T), and self-awareness (S). [21] Oftentimes, higher education is thought to be too narrowly focused and lacking of understanding of the material to develop the skills necessary for a certain career. [22]

Some research shows adding one year of schooling beyond high school to 17.8% per worker. However, additional years of schooling, beyond 9 or 10 years, have little effect on worker’s wages. In summary, better educated, bigger benefits. In 2010, 90% of the US Workforce had a high school diploma, 64% had some college, and 34% had at least a bachelor’s degree. [23]

The common problem that the people are experiencing. The career that comes with schooling. The benefits of schooling can be obtained, the programs can be awarded, and the ranking of the school. Sometimes, colleges provide students with care. It is not uncommon for colleges to provide pathways and support straight into the workforce may desire. [24]

Much career support is delivered face-to-face, but an increasing amount of career support is delivered online. [5]

See also

  • Job satisfaction
  • Employment
  • Profession


  1. Jump up^ career. 2012. Retrieved 20120-02-10.
  2. Jump up^ career. The Free Dictionary. 2013. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  3. Jump up^ “Careers Blueprint” . Excellence Gateway . Archived from the originalon 2014-07-24 . Retrieved 2014-01-11 .
  4. Jump up^ Hooley, T .; Watts, AG; Sultana, RG; Neary, S. (2013). The ‘blueprint’ framework for career management skills: a critical exploration. British Journal of Guidance & Counseling . 41 (2): 117. doi : 10.1080 / 03069885.2012.713908 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:b Hooley, T. (2012). “How the internet changed career: framing the relationship between career development and online technologies” (PDF) . Journal of the National Institute for Career Education and Counseling (NICEC) . 29 : 3.
  6. Jump up^ Schreuder, AMG (2006). Careers: An Organizational Perspective . p. 187. ISBN  9780702171758 .
  7. Jump up^ Ott-Holland, CJ; Huang, JL; Ryan, AM; Elizondo, F .; Wadlington, PL (October 2013). “Culture and Vocational Interests: The Moderating Role of Collectivism and Gender Equality” . Journal of Counseling Psychology . American Psychological Association. 60 (4): 569-581. doi : 10.1037 / a0033587 . Retrieved 31 January 2014 .
  8. Jump up^ Tim Tyrell-Smith. “How to Choose a Career That’s Best for You” . US News & World Report .
  9. Jump up^ “National Longitudinal Surveys”. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  10. ^ Jump up to:b Cullen, LT (28 May 2008) “Top Reasons Why we change jobs” . Time.
  11. Jump up^ Gunz and Heslin (2005). “Reconceptualising career success”. Journal of Organizational Behavior . 26 : 105-111.
  12. Jump up^ Inkson, Dries and Arnold (2014). Understanding Careers, 2nd edition . London: Sage. ISBN  978-1-44628-291-5 .
  13. Jump up^ Hall and Chandler (2005). “Psychological success: When the career is a calling”. Journal of Organizational Behavior . 26 : 155-176.
  14. Jump up^ Heslin, Peter (2003). “Self and other referent criteria of career success”. Journal of Career Assessment . 11 : 262-286.
  15. Jump up^ Arnold, Randall; et al. (2016). Work Psychology, 6th edition . Harlow: Pearson. pp. 555-558.
  16. Jump up^ Ng and Feldman (2014). “Subjective career success: A meta-analytic review”. Journal of Vocational Behavior . 85 : 169-179.
  17. Jump up^ Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development & European Commission (OECD & EC) (2004). Career Guidance: A Handbook for Policy Makers. Paris: OECD. ISBN 9264015191.
  18. Jump up^ UCDavis Human Resources. 2010. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  19. Jump up^ “Why is a Career Assessment Important?”Success Factors. 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  20. Jump up^ Hooley, T., Marriott, J., Watts, AG and Coiffait, L. (2012). Careers 2020: Options for Future Careers Work in English ArchivedSchoolsJanuary 11, 2014, at theWayback Machine.. London: Pearson.
  21. Jump up^ Law, B. & Watts, AG (1977). Schools, Careers and Community: A Study of Some Approaches to Careers Education in Schools. London: Church Information Office. ISBN 0715190296.
  22. Jump up^ Grubb, WN; Lazerson, M. (2005). “Vocationalism in Higher Education: The Triumph of Gospel Education”. The Journal of Higher Education . 76 : 1. doi :10.1353 / jhe.2005.0007 .
  23. Jump up^ DeVol, R., Shen, I., Bedroussian, A., Zhang, N. (2013). A Matter of Degrees: The Effect of Educational Attainment on Regional Economic Prosperity. Milken Institute
  24. Jump up^ Brennan, Susan. (2013-02-13)How To Prepare Students For The Current Economy – Yahoo Finance. Retrieved on 2014-01-11.


Underemployment (or disguised unemployment ) is the under-use of a worker due to a job That does not use the skills workers, part time is gold, gold leaves the idle worker. [2] Examples include holding a part-time job despite desiring full-time work, and overqualification , where the employee has education, experience, or skills beyond the requirements of the job. [3] [4] Continue reading “underemployment”

Women in STEM fields

Many scholars and policymakers have noted that the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM fields) have been predominantly male occupations, with historically low participation among women , from their origin in the Age of Enlightenment to the present time. STEM professions, like medicine , require higher education or training in almost all cases. Continue reading “Women in STEM fields”

Working parent

working parent is a parent or a parent who engages in a work life. There are many structures within single families, working mothers or single, working fathers. There are also two parents who are dual-earners, in which both parents provide income. [1] Within these family structures, there is much concern about gender inequalities . Within the institution of gender, they are expected gender roles that society [2] Continue reading “Working parent”


Workgang is a group of individuals who are assigned, or engaged in, a common task. Examples include Prison Workgangs used for farming, construction, trash collection/waste management, fire fighting, or inmate emergency services. Such workgangs have varying levels of supervision ranging from Armed Corrections Officers, Unarmed Community Supervision, to self-supervised Trustees. Continue reading “Workgang”

Underearners Anonymous

Underearners Anonymous , Often abbreviated ” AU ” is a twelve-step program for men and women Who-have come together to Overcome What They Call “underearning”. Underearning is not just the inability to provide for oneself monetarily, but also inability to provide for one’s needs and future needs and the ability to express one’s capabilities and competencies. The underlying premise of the Underwriters is that it is a kind of mental disorder, rather like the alcoholic’s self-destructive compulsion to drink to excess. Continue reading “Underearners Anonymous”

Temporary duty assignment

temporary duty assignment ( TDA ), also known as ” temporary duty travel ” ( TDT ), ” temporary additional duty ” ( TAD ) in the Navy and Marine Corps (or TDI for ” temporary duty under instruction “, referring to training assignments) , or ” temporary duty Yonder ” ( TDY ) in the Army and Air Force, refers to a United States Government employee travel assignment at a location other than the employee’s permanent duty station. This type of secondmentis usually of relatively short duration, typically two days to 179 days in length. Not all agencies use this designation. Some government agencies including the Defense Department mandate they are less than six months in duration. [1] Those agencies do not mandate a six-month permanent changes of station (PCS). Continue reading “Temporary duty assignment”


Saudization or Saudization of the workforce [1] -the replacement of foreign workers in the private sector -is the official national policy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia . [2] While many Saudis are employed by the government, there are not enough jobs for the growing number of youth. As of 2006 the private sector is largely dominated by expatriate workers from Southeast Asia and the Arab world. Continue reading “Saudization”

Recommendation letter

recommendation letter or letter of recommendation , Also Known As a letter of reference , reference letter or simply reference , is a document en qui the writer assesses the qualities, characteristics, and capabilities of the person being white recommended in terms of That individual’s Ability to perform a particular task or function. Letters of recommendation are Typically related to employment (Such a letter May aussi be called Expired year employment reference or job reference ), admission to institutions of Higher Education , or scholarshipadmissibilité. Recommendations letters are usually specifically requested to be addressed to someone, and are therefore addressed to a particular requester (such as a new employer, university admissions officer, etc.), they may also be issued to the person being recommended without specifying an addressee . Continue reading “Recommendation letter”

Nursing shortage

Nursing shortage refers to a situation where the demand for nursing professionals , such as Registered Nurses (RNs), exceeds the supply-locally (eg, within a health care facility ), nationally or globally. It can be measured, for instance, when the nurse-to- patient ratio, the nurse-to-population ratio, or the number of job openings is higher. This situation is observed in developing nations around the world. Continue reading “Nursing shortage”

Nominative determinism

Nominative determinism is the hypothesis that people tend to gravitate towards areas of work that fit their names. The term was first used in the magazine New Scientist in 1994, after the magazine’s humorous feedback column noted several studies carried out by researchers with remarkably fitting supernames . These included a book on polar explorations by Daniel Snowman and an article on urology by researchers named Splatt and Weedon. These and other examples led to light-hearted speculation. Since the term appeared, nominative determinism has been an irregularly recurring topic in New Scientist, as readers continue to submit examples. Nominative determinism differs from the related concept aptronym , and Its synonyms aptonym, namephreak, and Perfect Fit Last Name, en ce que focusses it is causality. “Aptronym” simply means the name is fitting. Continue reading “Nominative determinism”

Job sharing

Job sharing or work sharing is an employment arrangement Where Typically two people are Retained were part-time or Reduced-time basis to perform a job Normally Fulfilled by one person working full-time . Since all positions are shared thus leads to a net reduction in income. The people sharing the job is a team responsible for the job workload. Compensation is apportioned between the workers. Working hours, pay and holidays are divided The pay as you go system makes national insurance deductions and superannuations are made as a straightforward percentage.[1] Continue reading “Job sharing”

List of OECD countries by job security

This is a list of OECD countries by job security , an important component in measuring quality of life and the well-being of its citizens. It lists OECD countries ‘workers’ chance of losing their job in 2012, with some non-OECD countries also included. Workers facing a high risk of job loss are more vulnerable, especially in countries with smaller social safety nets . This indicator has been developed in 2012, but was employed in 2011, but was employed in 2011. Continue reading “List of OECD countries by job security”

Job rotation

Job rotation is a technique used by some employers to rotate their jobs in their jobs. Employers practice this technique for a number of reasons. It is designed to promote flexibility in the employment of employees and employees. There is also research that shows how job rotations help relieve the stress of employees who work in a job that requires manual labor. Continue reading “Job rotation”

Job hunting

Job hunting , seeking job , or job searching is the act of looking for employment due to unemployment , underemployment , discontent with a current position or a desire for a better position. The immediate goal of job seeking is usually to obtenir a job interview with an employ qui May lead to getting hired . The job hunter or seeker typically looks for job vacancies or employment opportunities.


job , or occupation , is a person ‘s role in society. More specifically, a job is an activity, often regular and performed in exchange for payment (“for a living”). Many people have multiple jobs (eg, parent, homemaker, and employee). A person can begin by becoming an employee , volunteering , starting a business , or becoming a parent . The duration of a job can range from temporary (eg, hourly odd jobs) to a lifetime (eg, judges ). Continue reading “Job”

Iron rice bowl

“Iron rice bowl” ( simplified Chinese : 铁饭碗 ; traditional Chinese : 鐵飯碗 ; pinyin : Tie fàn wǎn ) is a Chinese term used to Refer to an occupation with guaranteed job security , as well as steady income and benefits. [1] The Chinese term can be compared to the similar (but not identical) English concept of a “job for life”. Traditionally, people regarded to-have iron rice bowls include military personnel, members of the civil service , as well as employees of various state run companies (through the mechanism of the work unit). [2] Continue reading “Iron rice bowl”

IPS Supported Employment

IPS Supported Employment is an evidence-based approach to supporting employment for people who have a mental illness. IPS stands for Individual Placement and Support . IPS supports people in their efforts to achieve steady, meaningful employment in mainstream competitive jobs, either part-time or full-time. This stands in contrast to other vocational rehabilitation approaches that employs people in sheltered workshops and other set-aside jobs. Continue reading “IPS Supported Employment”

Export-oriented employment

Export-oriented employment refers to employment in multinational corporations international industrial factories, usually located in developing countries . Such factories produce goods and services for sale in other countries. Whereas these multinationals have expanded their position in the world of employment, they have suggested that they be strengthened by gender and gender equality . [1] [2]Such gender inequities allow multinational firms to be more profitable than they would otherwise be. This decrease in the cost of labor comes from the relegation of women to certain occupations. Studies show that in the quest for lower labor costs, export-oriented facilities create poor working conditions. [3] Continue reading “Export-oriented employment”

Epilepsy and employment

Epilepsy can affect employment for a variety of reasons. Many employees are reluctant to hire a person they know their epilepsy, even if they are controlled by medication. If the employee suffers to seize them while at work, they could be harmless (but rarely others, contrary to popular belief) depending on the nature of the work. Employers are often more likely to be employed than others, ie, insurance costs, paid sick leave and so on. Many people Whose seizures are successfully controlled by medication has Suffer from a variety of side effects, Most notably drowsiness , qui May affect job performance. Many Laws Prohibit or restrict people with epilepsy from performing some duties, Most notably driving or operating dangerous machinery, thereby Lowering the pool of jobs available to people with epilepsy. Epilepsy sufferers are also prohibited from joining the armed forces, although they may work in certain civilian military positions. Continue reading “Epilepsy and employment”

Encore fellowships

Still fellowships are temporary work placement programs designed to help train private sector mid-life careerists transition into further career in the social sector . Similar to how a person might apply for an internship with a business prior to Applying for a full-time position, this temporary fellowship Allows a person to non-profit work first-hand without experience the long-term commitment of a full-time again career. [1] Continue reading “Encore fellowships”

Employment contract

An employment contract or contract of employment is a kind of contract used in labor law to attribute rights and responsibilities between parties to a bargain. The contract is between an “employee” and an “employ”. It has arisen out of the old master-serving law, used before the 20th century. But, the contract of employment denotes a relationship of economic dependence and social subordination. In the words of the controversial labor lawyer Sir Otto Kahn-Freund , Continue reading “Employment contract”