Women in venture capital

Women in venture capital or VC are investors Who Provide venture capital funding to startups . Women make up a small (usually less than 10%) fraction of the venture capital private equity workforce. A source Widely used for tracking the number of women in venture capital is the Midas List qui has-been published by Forbes since 2001. One of the first women to make the list, Annette Campbell-White, has-beens Cited as an example of discrimination in venture capital. She claimed that a number of firms in the 1980s ignored her senior management experience in Hambrecht & Quist . [1] [2]In addition to Findings That women make up the majorité of early technology adopters, [3] Harvard Business SchoolProfessor Paul Gompers HAS Stated That female venture capitalists Consistently perform as well as males at large firms That Have More than one woman. [4] Continue reading “Women in venture capital”

Women in philosophy

Women are involved in philosophy throughout the field’s history. While there were women philosophers since ancient times, they were accepted as philosophers during the ancient , medieval , modern and contemporary eras, particularly during the 20th and 21st century, almost no woman philosophers have entered the philosophical Western canon . [1] [2] Continue reading “Women in philosophy”

Women in music education

Women in music education describes the role of women musicians, conductors, teachers and educational administrators in music education at the elementary school and secondary education levels. While music critics argued in the 1880s that “… women lacked the innate creativity to compose good music” due to “biological predisposition”, [1] later, it was accepted that women would have a role in music education , and they involved in this field “… to such a degree that women dominated music education during the 20th century.” [1]“Traditional accounts of the history of music education [in the US] have often neglected the contributions of women, because these texts have emphasized bands and the top leaders in hierarchical music organizations.” [2]When looking beyond these bandleaders and top leaders, women had many music education roles in … “home, community, churches, public schools, and teacher-training institutions” and “… as writers, bosses, and through their volunteer work in organizations. ” [2] Continue reading “Women in music education”

Women in law

Women in Law Describes the role played by women in the legal profession and related occupations, qui includes lawyers (also called Expired barristers , advocates , solicitors , attorneys or legal counselors), paralegals , Prosecutors (also called Expired District Attorneys Golden Crown Prosecutors ), judges , legal scholars (including feminist legal theorists ), law professors and law schooldeans. Continue reading “Women in law”

Women in Latin music

Women have made significant contributions to Latin music , a genre which predates Italian explorer Christopher Columbus ‘ arrival in Latin America in 1492 and the Spanish colonization of the Americas . The earliest musicians were native americans , hundreds of ethnic groups across the continent, whose lyrics “reflect conflict, beauty, bread, and loss that mark all human experience .” Indigenous communities reserved music for women , who were given equal opportunities to men to teach, performance, sing, and dance. Ethnomusicologists have measured ceramic, animal-bone, and cane flutes from theInca Empire which indicates a preference for women with a high vocal range . Women had equal social status , were trained, and received the same opportunities in the late 15th century. European settlers brought patriarchal, machismo ideologies to the continent, replacing the idea of ​​equality between men and women. They have a native music with “savagery” and European music with “civilization”. Female musicians tend to be darker-skinned as a result of the slave trade (which increased the population of African Slavs), and contemporary society denigrated music as a profession. Latin music became Africanized, with syncopated rhythms and call-and-response ; European settlement introduced harmony and the Spanish decima song form. Continue reading “Women in Latin music”

Women in film

Women in film describes the role of women as film directors , actresses , cinematographers , film producers , film critics , and other film industry professions. The work of women film scholars, including feminist film theorists is also described. Women are statistically underrepresented in creative positions in the center of the US film industry, Hollywood . This underrepresentation has been called the ” celluloid ceiling “, a variant on the employment discrimination term ” glass ceilingIn 2013, the “… top-paid actors … made 2½ times as much money as the top-paid actresses.” [3] “[O] lder [male] actors make more than their female equals” in age, with “female movie stars mak [ing] the most money on average for movie at age 34, while male stars earn the most at 51.” [4] In 2013, 9% of directors were women. the Academy Award for Best Director for the first time When Kathryn Bigelow won for The Hurt Locker (2009). [5] Continue reading “Women in film”

Union Colliery Co of British Columbia v Bryden

Union Colliery Co of British Columbia v Bryden [1] is a famous Canadian constitutional decision of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council where the exclusivity principle inCanadian federalism and pith and substance analysis was first articulated. Continue reading “Union Colliery Co of British Columbia v Bryden”

Statistical discrimination (economics)

Statistical discrimination is an economic theory of racial or gender inequality based on stereotypes . According to this theory, inequality may exist and persist between demographic groups even when economic agents (consumers, workers, employers, etc.) are rational and non-prejudiced. This type of treatment is labeled “statistical” because stereotypes may be based on the discriminated group’s average behavior. Continue reading “Statistical discrimination (economics)”

Removing the glass ceiling from the United States

The glass ceiling , in terms of job positions, can be defined as an intangible barrier within a hierarchy that prevents women and minorities from being promoted to upper-level positions. [1] Removing the glass ceiling is the act of taking away this invisible barrier for women and minorities to move up to upper-level positions. In the US, only 5% of women are running a Fortune 500 company which is equivalent to twenty-five companies. In the US, feminists will use the term minorities, minorities, and minorities. Continue reading “Removing the glass ceiling from the United States”

Rangers FC signing policy

Between the 1920s and 1989, Scottish club football club Rangers FC had an unwritten rule of the club that would have been known to Roman Catholic . [1] Rangers were viewed as a ” Protestant Club” and discussed in their Old Firm rival, Celtic who were viewed as having a Catholic club . The policy was ended in 1989 by Rangers manager Graeme Souness when he signed Mo Johnston . Continue reading “Rangers FC signing policy”

Pao v. Kleiner Perkins

Ellen Pao v. Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers LLC and DOES 1-20 is a lawsuit filed in San Francisco County Superior Court under the law of California by executive Ellen Pao for gender discrimination against her employer,Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers . Overlapping with a number of condemning studies on the representation of women in venture capital, the case was closely followed by reporters, advocacy groups and Silicon Valley executives. [1] Given the tendency for similar cases to reach out, Pao v. Kleiner Perkins described it as a landmark trial once in February 2015. [2][3] On March 27, 2015 the jury found in favor of Kleiner Perkins on all counts. Continue reading “Pao v. Kleiner Perkins”

New South Wales selection bias

New South Wales selection is biased by selectors of the Australian cricket teams towards players from New South Wales . It was exemplified in a quote by former South Australian captain David Hookes who said, “When they give out the baggy blue cap in New South Wales, they give you a baggy green one in a brown paper bag to save making two presentations “. [1] This is an example of confirmation biasand Hookes’ How did they come into the world when they were selected by the US? and / or One-Day team. The claims persist in spite of the fact that New South Welshman has occupied a position on the National Selection Panel since John Benaud in 1994. citation needed ] Continue reading “New South Wales selection bias”

Motherhood penalty

The motherhood penalty is a term coined by Sociologists Who That argues in the workplace , working mothers encounter systematic Disadvantages in pay, Perceived competence, and benefits relative to childless women. Specifically, women may suffer a per-child wage penalty, resulting in a gap between non-mothers and mothers who are larger than the gap between men and women. They may also be worse at job-site evaluations than they are less dependent on, less dependable, and less authoritative than non-mothers. Thus, mothers may experience disadvantages in terms of hiring, pay, and daily job experience. [1] [2] [3]In attendance, non-mothers offered an average of $ 11,000 more than mothers. [4] An audit study also showed that prospective employers were less likely to call back mothers for interviews than non-mothers. [5] The motherhood wage penalty is not limited to the United States, Japan, South Korea, United Kingdom, Poland, and Australia. The penalty has not shown any signs of declining over time. [6] Continue reading “Motherhood penalty”

Maternal wall

The maternal wall is a term referring to stereotypes and various forms of discrimination . Women hit the maternal wall when they encounter discrimination because of past, present, or future pregnancies because they have taken one or more maternity leaves. [1] Women may also be discriminated against when they opt for part-time or flexible work schedules. [1] Maternal wall discrimination is not limited to childcare responsibilities. [2] Both men and women with caregiving responsibilities, such as taking care of a sick parents or spouse, may also result in maternal wall discrimination.[2] As such, maternal wall discrimination is also described as family responsibilities discrimination . [3] [4] [5] Research suggests that the maternal wall is made up of employing stereotypes and gender expectations. Continue reading “Maternal wall”

Marriage bar

marriage bar is the custom and practice of restricting the employment of married women in general or in particular professions or occupations; and sometimes the practice called for employment of a woman on her marriage, especially in teaching, clerical and other occupations, and sometimes widowed women with children. [1] [2] [3] Continue reading “Marriage bar”

MacBride Principles

The MacBride Principles – consistant en nine fair employment principles – are a corporate code of conduct for United States companies doing business in Northern Ireland and Have Become the standard for all US Congressional aid to, or for economic dealings with, Northern Ireland. They were promoted by Seán McManus and the Irish National Caucus , and by John Finucanne and the American Irish Political Education Committee (PEC), and were drafted by Nobel laureate Seán MacBride (founding member of Amnesty International ), and were launched in November 1984 . [1] Continue reading “MacBride Principles”

LGBT employment discrimination in the United States

The regulation of LGBT employment discrimination in the United States varies by jurisdiction. Many, but not all, states and localities prohibit bias in hiring, promotion, job assignment, termination, and compensation, as well as harassment on the basis of one’s sexual orientation . Fewer prolonged the protections to cover sexual identity . [1] Some cover government employees do not extend their protections to the private sector. Protections at the national level are limited. There is no federal statute of employment discrimination discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. However, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission(EEOC) Title VII Interpreters of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to cover discrimination against LGBT employees, “allegations of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. [2] This interpretation is in essence the essence of the law of discrimination in relation to the civil rights act of 1964. [3] In 2012 the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ruled that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 does not allow gender identity-based employment discrimination because it is a form of sex discrimination. [4] Then in 2015, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission concluded thatTitle VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 does not allow sexual orientation discrimination in employment because it is a form of sex discrimination. [5] [6] However, these rulings, while persuasive, may not be binding on short. [7] Continue reading “LGBT employment discrimination in the United States”

Labor discrimination

Labor discrimination as defined by Kenneth Arrow is “the valuation in the marketplace of personal characteristics of the worker who is unrelated to worker productivity”. [1]It can be understood as the differentiation of workers based on color, race, origin, gender etc. that can be classified as having a role in determining its or her productivity. There are many dimensions that need to be considered when discussing such discrimination. The most obvious is that the group discriminated against is paid less for identical jobs. This is the most prevalent form of discrimination. The attempt to combat such a form of discrimination can be seen in other countries. Examples of this are the Equal Pay Act (1970), Sex Discrimination Act(1975), and Employment Protection Act (1975), but the effectiveness of such legislation is subject to much debate. Secondly, that the level of unemployment for the group in general is higher than that of other groups that do not face such discrimination. Thirdly, there is discrimination in the employment of persons with disabilities, where they are discriminated against. with equal productivity. When this happens, the group is employed for a job or is more often than not qualified for it, simply because it is more likely that it will not be able to do so. [2]A general misconception prevails that discrimination is only practiced by the employer. This is not true. In addition to employing discrimination, customer discrimination can also exist in the market. Customers may prefer to have a certain kind of people. [3]

Glass escalator

The term ” glass escalator ” was introduced by Christine L. Williams in her research “The Glass Escalator: Hidden Advantages for Men in the” Female “Profession” [1] published in August of 1992. The glass escalator refers to the way men, namely, heterosexual white men, are more likely to dominate sex-segregated occupations. It is most present in lower levels of the profession. This idea is a parallel to the popular idea of ​​the glass ceiling , where women face advancement in the workplace. Continue reading “Glass escalator”

Executive Order 10925

Executive Order 10925 , signed by President John F. Kennedy on March 6, 1961, required government contractors to “take affirmative action to ensure that they are employed during employment without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin. ” [1] Established the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity (PCEEO), which was chaired by Vice President Lyndon Johnson . [2] Vice Chair and Secretary of Labor Arthur Goldberg was in charge of the Committee’s operations. [2] This first implementation of Affirmative Actionto be discriminated against. [3] Continue reading “Executive Order 10925”

Equal employment opportunity

Equal employment opportunity is equal opportunity in employment . The United States Employment Opportunity Commission , which is established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to assist in the protection of United States employees from discrimination. [1] The law is the first federal law to protect the employment of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin (Public Law 88-352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat 253, 42 USC Sec 2000e and seq.). [2]Employment discrimination, as well as firing, hiring, promotion, transfer or employment, and discrimination in employment, or classification. The Title is relevant in the case of businesses that have fifteen or more employees. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is section 705 of the title. [3] Continue reading “Equal employment opportunity”

EQUAL Community Initiative

EQUAL was a Community Initiative within the European Social Fund of the European Union . It concerns “transnational co-operation to promote new ways of combating all forms of discrimination and inequalities in connection with the labor market”. [1] It ran from 2001 till 2007 with a budget of some $ 3 billion of EU resources, matched by a similar sum from national resources. Continue reading “EQUAL Community Initiative”

Employment discrimination law in the European Union

Employment discrimination law in the European Union including two directives . The directives were agreed by the EU member states in 2000. [1] The European Parliament Committee on Employment and Social Affairs is responsible for oversight. [2] Continue reading “Employment discrimination law in the European Union”

Employment discrimination against persons with criminal records in the United States

Employment discrimination contre persons with criminal records in the United States has-been illegal since passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Employers may lawfully consider an applicant’s or employee’s criminal conviction (s) for employment purposes eg, hiring, retention, promotion, benefits, and delegated duties. That said, blanket policies or practices eg, exclusion of all the demands of the world. Likewise, policies or practices that are not narrowly restrictive may be necessary to prevent violations of the law. Title VII applies to businesses and defines two types of discrimination, disparate treatment and disparate impact. TeaEqual Employment Opportunity Commission has been enforcing Title VII since it came into effect in 1965. It has periodically issued an enforceable application of the law. in April 2012 it is published in the United States of America. The size of the problem is unknown. Continue reading “Employment discrimination against persons with criminal records in the United States”

Credit history

credit history is a record of a borrower’s repayment of debts. [1] A credit report is a record of the borrower’s credit history, credit card companies, collection agencies, and governments. [2] A borrower’s credit score is the result of a mathematical algorithm applied to a credit report and other sources of information to predict future delinquency. [2] Continue reading “Credit history”

Black conductors

African conductors are musicians of African , Caribbean , African-American ancestry and other members of the African diaspora who are musical ensemble leaders who live classical music performances, such as an orchestral or choral concerts, or jazz ensemble big band concerts by way of visible gestures with the hands, arms, face and head. Conductors of African descent are rare, as are the vast majority are male and Caucasian . Continue reading “Black conductors”

Employment discrimination

Employment discrimination is a form of discrimination based on race , gender , religion , national origin , physical or mental disability , age , sexual orientation , and gender identity by employers. Earnings differentials or occupational differentiation is not in favor of self-evidence of employment discrimination. Discrimination can be intended and involve disparate treatment of a group or unintended, yet create disparate impact for a group. Continue reading “Employment discrimination”