Career management

Career management is the combination of structured planning and the active management of one’s own professional career. Career management was first defined in a social work by Mary Valentich as the implementation of a career strategy (Valentich & Gripton, 1978). Career orientation refers to the overall design or pattern of one’s career, shaped by particular goals and interests and identifiable by particular positions that embody these goals and interests. Career strategy to the individual’s general approach to the achievement of career goals, and to the specificity of the goals themselves. Two general strategies are adaptive and planned. Career tactics are actions to maintain oneself in a diverse employment situation. Tactics may be more or less assertive, Continue reading “Career management”

Career assessment

These are the tools that are designed to help individuals understand how to use a variety of personal attributes (ie, data values, preferences, motivations, skills and competences), and their potential success and satisfaction with different career options and work environments. Career assessments have played a critical role in career development and the economy in the last century (Whiston and Rahardja, 2005). Assessments of Some or all of These attributes are Often used by Individuals or organisms, Such As university career service centers, career counselors , outplacement companies, corporate human resources staff, executive coaches, vocational rehabilitation counselors, and guidance counselors to help individuals make more informed career decisions. Continue reading “Career assessment”

Academic careerism

Academic careerism is the tendency of academics ( professors specifically and intellectuals) to pursue their own self-enrichment and self-advancement at the expense of honest inquiry, and research and dissemination of truth to their students and society. Such careerism has been criticized by thinkers from Socrates in Ancient Athens to Russell Jacoby in the present. Continue reading “Academic careerism”


career is an individual’s metaphorical “journey” through learning, work and other aspects of life . There are a number of ways to define a career, and the term is used in a variety of ways.

Definitions and etymology

The word career is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as a person’s “race or progress through life”. In this definition is shown to a range of aspects of an individual’s life, learning and work. Career est Understood to frequently relates to the working aspects of an individual’s life as eg in career woman . A third way in which the term is used to describe an occupation or a profession that is usually involved in training or training, [1] and is considered to be a person’s lifework. [2] In this case “a career” is seen as a sequence of related jobs usually pursued within a single industry or sector “a career in education” or “a career in the building trade”.

Historic changes in careers

For a pre-modernist notion of “career”, compare cursus honorum .

By the late 20th century, a wide-range of choices (especially in the ranks of potential professions ) and more Widespread education HAD allowed it To Become feasible to map (Gold design) has career: in this respect the careers of the career counselor and of the career advisor have grown up. It is also not uncommon for adults in the late 20th century or early 20th century to have dual or multiple careers , either sequentially or concurrently. Thus, professional identities have become hyphenated or hybridized to reflect this shift in work ethic. Economist Richard Florida notes this trend and more specifically among the ” creative class “.

Career management

Career management describes the active and purposeful management of a career by an individual. Ideas of what comprised “career management skills” are Described by the Blueprint model (in the United States, Canada, Australia, Scotland and England [3] ) [4] and the Seven C’s of Digital Career Literacy (SPECIFICALLY Relating to the Internet skills ). [5]

Key skills include the ability to reflect on one’s current career, research the labor market , determine whether education is necessary, find openings, and make career changes.

Career choice

Further information: List of Largest Employers and List of Professions

According to Behling and others, an individual’s decision to join a firm is one of the three factors viz. objective factor, subjective factor and critical contact. [6]

  • Objective factor theory assumes that the applicants are rational. The choice, therefore, is exercised after an objective assessment of the tangible benefits of the job. Factors may include the salary, other benefits, rental, opportunities for career advancement, etc.
  • Subjective factor theory suggests that decision making is dominated by social and psychological factors. The status of the job, the reputation of the organization and other similar factors plays an important role.
  • Critical contact theory advances the idea that a candidate’s observations while interacting with the organization plays a vital role in decision making. For example, how to recruit in the response to the candidate, the promptness of response and similar factors are important. This theory is more valid with experienced professionals.

These theories assume that candidates have a free choice of employers and careers. In reality the scarcity of jobs and strong competition for desirable jobs The decision making process. In many markets employees work because they have been forced to accept anything. Additionally, Ott-Holland and colleagues found that culture can have a major influence on career choice, depending on the type of culture. [7]

When choosing a career that’s best for you, according to US News, there are multiple things to consider. Some of those include: natural talents, work style, social interaction, work-life balance, whether or not you are looking to give back, whether you are comfortable in the public eye, dealing with stress or not, and finally, how much money you want to make. If you want to change your mind, here’s another option: you can make a change in your mind. In today’s workplace, you do not need to go anywhere in your life. Make a smart decision, and plan to re-evaluate the line based on your long-term objectives. [8]

Career (occupation) changing

Changing occupation is an important aspect of career and career management. Over a lifetime, both the individual and the labor market will change; It is to be expected that many people will change occupations during their lives. Data collected by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics by the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in 1979. [9]

A survey conducted by Right Management [10] suggests the following reasons for career changing.

  • The downsizing or restructuring of an organization (54%).
  • New challenges or opportunities that arise (30%).
  • Poor or ineffective leadership (25%).
  • Having a poor relationship with a manager (s) (22%).
  • For the improvement of work / life balance (21%).
  • Contributions are not being recognized (21%).
  • For better compensation and benefits (18%),
  • For better alignment with personal and organizational values ​​(17%).
  • Personal strengths and capabilities are not good with an organization (16%).
  • The financial instability of an organization (13%).
  • An organization relocated (12%).

According to an article on, one of three people is currently employed (as of 2008). [10]

Career success

Career success is a term used frequently in academic and popular writing about career. It refers to the extent and ways in which an individual can be described as successful in his or her life. [11]

Traditionally, career success has often been thought of in terms of earnings and / or status within an occupation or organization. This can be expressed in absolute terms (eg the amount a person earns) or in relative terms. Earnings and conditions are examples of objectives of success, where “objective” means that they can be factually verified, and are not strictly a matter of opinion.

Many observers argue that careers are less predictable than they once were, due to the rapid pace of economic change. [12] This means that career management is more obviously the responsibility of the individual rather than his or her employing organization, because a “job for life” is a thing of the past. This is more emphasis on subjective criteria of career success. [13] These include job satisfaction, career satisfaction, work-life balance, a sense of personal achievement, and attaining work that is consistent with one’s personal values. A person’s assessment of his or her career is likely to be influenced by social comparisons, such, friends, or contemporaries at school or college have done. [14]

The amount and type of career success has been achieved by several forms of career capital. [15] These include social capital , the human capital (demonstrable abilities, experiences and qualifications), economic capital (money and other materials resources) , and cultural capital (having skills, attitudes or general know-how to operate effectively in a particular social context). [16]

Career support

There are a range of different educational, counseling, and human resource management interventions that can support individuals to develop and manage their careers. Career support is commonly offered while people are in education, when they are transitioning to the labor market, when they are changing career, during periods of unemployment, and during transition to retirement. Support can be offered by career professionals, other professionals or by non-professionals such as family and friends. Professional career is known as “career guidance” in the OECD definition of career guidance:

The activities may take place on an individual or group basis, and may be face-to-face or at a distance (including helplines and web-based services). They include career information provision, assessment and self-assessment tools, counseling interviews, career education programs, taster programs, work search programs, and transition services. ” [17]

However, this use of the term “career guidance” may be confusing as it is commonly used to describe the activities of career counselors .

Provision of career support

Career support is offered by a range of different mechanisms. Much career support is informal and provided through personal networks or existing relationships such as management. There is a market for private career support, however, the bulk of career support is provided by the public sector. quote needed ]

Types of career support

Key types of career support include:

  • Career information describes information that supports career and learning choices. An important sub-set of career information is labor market information (LMI), such as employment of various occupations, employment rates in various occupations, and training programs.
  • Career assessments are tests that come in a variety of forms and rely on both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Career assessments can help them identify and better articulate their unique interests, personality, values, and skills to a certain career. Some skills that career can be determined by job-specific skills, transferable skills, and self-management skills. [18] Career assessments can also provide a window of opportunity for the learner, the experience, the training and the training. [19] Career counselors , executive coaches, educational institutions, career development centers, and outplacement companies .
  • Career counseling assesses people’s interests, personality, values ​​and skills, and helps them explore career options and research graduate and professional schools. Career counseling provides one-on-one or professional assistance in the field of decision making.
  • Career education describes how they come to learn about themselves, their careers and the world of work. There is a strong tradition of career education in schools, [20] however, career growth can also occur in a wider range of other contexts and further education and the workplace. A common used framework for careers education is DOTS which stands for decision learning (D), opportunity awareness (O), transition learning (T), and self-awareness (S). [21] Oftentimes, higher education is thought to be too narrowly focused and lacking of understanding of the material to develop the skills necessary for a certain career. [22]

Some research shows adding one year of schooling beyond high school to 17.8% per worker. However, additional years of schooling, beyond 9 or 10 years, have little effect on worker’s wages. In summary, better educated, bigger benefits. In 2010, 90% of the US Workforce had a high school diploma, 64% had some college, and 34% had at least a bachelor’s degree. [23]

The common problem that the people are experiencing. The career that comes with schooling. The benefits of schooling can be obtained, the programs can be awarded, and the ranking of the school. Sometimes, colleges provide students with care. It is not uncommon for colleges to provide pathways and support straight into the workforce may desire. [24]

Much career support is delivered face-to-face, but an increasing amount of career support is delivered online. [5]

See also

  • Job satisfaction
  • Employment
  • Profession


  1. Jump up^ career. 2012. Retrieved 20120-02-10.
  2. Jump up^ career. The Free Dictionary. 2013. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  3. Jump up^ “Careers Blueprint” . Excellence Gateway . Archived from the originalon 2014-07-24 . Retrieved 2014-01-11 .
  4. Jump up^ Hooley, T .; Watts, AG; Sultana, RG; Neary, S. (2013). The ‘blueprint’ framework for career management skills: a critical exploration. British Journal of Guidance & Counseling . 41 (2): 117. doi : 10.1080 / 03069885.2012.713908 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:b Hooley, T. (2012). “How the internet changed career: framing the relationship between career development and online technologies” (PDF) . Journal of the National Institute for Career Education and Counseling (NICEC) . 29 : 3.
  6. Jump up^ Schreuder, AMG (2006). Careers: An Organizational Perspective . p. 187. ISBN  9780702171758 .
  7. Jump up^ Ott-Holland, CJ; Huang, JL; Ryan, AM; Elizondo, F .; Wadlington, PL (October 2013). “Culture and Vocational Interests: The Moderating Role of Collectivism and Gender Equality” . Journal of Counseling Psychology . American Psychological Association. 60 (4): 569-581. doi : 10.1037 / a0033587 . Retrieved 31 January 2014 .
  8. Jump up^ Tim Tyrell-Smith. “How to Choose a Career That’s Best for You” . US News & World Report .
  9. Jump up^ “National Longitudinal Surveys”. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  10. ^ Jump up to:b Cullen, LT (28 May 2008) “Top Reasons Why we change jobs” . Time.
  11. Jump up^ Gunz and Heslin (2005). “Reconceptualising career success”. Journal of Organizational Behavior . 26 : 105-111.
  12. Jump up^ Inkson, Dries and Arnold (2014). Understanding Careers, 2nd edition . London: Sage. ISBN  978-1-44628-291-5 .
  13. Jump up^ Hall and Chandler (2005). “Psychological success: When the career is a calling”. Journal of Organizational Behavior . 26 : 155-176.
  14. Jump up^ Heslin, Peter (2003). “Self and other referent criteria of career success”. Journal of Career Assessment . 11 : 262-286.
  15. Jump up^ Arnold, Randall; et al. (2016). Work Psychology, 6th edition . Harlow: Pearson. pp. 555-558.
  16. Jump up^ Ng and Feldman (2014). “Subjective career success: A meta-analytic review”. Journal of Vocational Behavior . 85 : 169-179.
  17. Jump up^ Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development & European Commission (OECD & EC) (2004). Career Guidance: A Handbook for Policy Makers. Paris: OECD. ISBN 9264015191.
  18. Jump up^ UCDavis Human Resources. 2010. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  19. Jump up^ “Why is a Career Assessment Important?”Success Factors. 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  20. Jump up^ Hooley, T., Marriott, J., Watts, AG and Coiffait, L. (2012). Careers 2020: Options for Future Careers Work in English ArchivedSchoolsJanuary 11, 2014, at theWayback Machine.. London: Pearson.
  21. Jump up^ Law, B. & Watts, AG (1977). Schools, Careers and Community: A Study of Some Approaches to Careers Education in Schools. London: Church Information Office. ISBN 0715190296.
  22. Jump up^ Grubb, WN; Lazerson, M. (2005). “Vocationalism in Higher Education: The Triumph of Gospel Education”. The Journal of Higher Education . 76 : 1. doi :10.1353 / jhe.2005.0007 .
  23. Jump up^ DeVol, R., Shen, I., Bedroussian, A., Zhang, N. (2013). A Matter of Degrees: The Effect of Educational Attainment on Regional Economic Prosperity. Milken Institute
  24. Jump up^ Brennan, Susan. (2013-02-13)How To Prepare Students For The Current Economy – Yahoo Finance. Retrieved on 2014-01-11.


Underemployment (or disguised unemployment ) is the under-use of a worker due to a job That does not use the skills workers, part time is gold, gold leaves the idle worker. [2] Examples include holding a part-time job despite desiring full-time work, and overqualification , where the employee has education, experience, or skills beyond the requirements of the job. [3] [4] Continue reading “underemployment”

Women in STEM fields

Many scholars and policymakers have noted that the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM fields) have been predominantly male occupations, with historically low participation among women , from their origin in the Age of Enlightenment to the present time. STEM professions, like medicine , require higher education or training in almost all cases. Continue reading “Women in STEM fields”

Working parent

working parent is a parent or a parent who engages in a work life. There are many structures within single families, working mothers or single, working fathers. There are also two parents who are dual-earners, in which both parents provide income. [1] Within these family structures, there is much concern about gender inequalities . Within the institution of gender, they are expected gender roles that society [2] Continue reading “Working parent”


Workgang is a group of individuals who are assigned, or engaged in, a common task. Examples include Prison Workgangs used for farming, construction, trash collection/waste management, fire fighting, or inmate emergency services. Such workgangs have varying levels of supervision ranging from Armed Corrections Officers, Unarmed Community Supervision, to self-supervised Trustees. Continue reading “Workgang”

Underearners Anonymous

Underearners Anonymous , Often abbreviated ” AU ” is a twelve-step program for men and women Who-have come together to Overcome What They Call “underearning”. Underearning is not just the inability to provide for oneself monetarily, but also inability to provide for one’s needs and future needs and the ability to express one’s capabilities and competencies. The underlying premise of the Underwriters is that it is a kind of mental disorder, rather like the alcoholic’s self-destructive compulsion to drink to excess. Continue reading “Underearners Anonymous”

Temporary duty assignment

temporary duty assignment ( TDA ), also known as ” temporary duty travel ” ( TDT ), ” temporary additional duty ” ( TAD ) in the Navy and Marine Corps (or TDI for ” temporary duty under instruction “, referring to training assignments) , or ” temporary duty Yonder ” ( TDY ) in the Army and Air Force, refers to a United States Government employee travel assignment at a location other than the employee’s permanent duty station. This type of secondmentis usually of relatively short duration, typically two days to 179 days in length. Not all agencies use this designation. Some government agencies including the Defense Department mandate they are less than six months in duration. [1] Those agencies do not mandate a six-month permanent changes of station (PCS). Continue reading “Temporary duty assignment”


Saudization or Saudization of the workforce [1] -the replacement of foreign workers in the private sector -is the official national policy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia . [2] While many Saudis are employed by the government, there are not enough jobs for the growing number of youth. As of 2006 the private sector is largely dominated by expatriate workers from Southeast Asia and the Arab world. Continue reading “Saudization”

Recommendation letter

recommendation letter or letter of recommendation , Also Known As a letter of reference , reference letter or simply reference , is a document en qui the writer assesses the qualities, characteristics, and capabilities of the person being white recommended in terms of That individual’s Ability to perform a particular task or function. Letters of recommendation are Typically related to employment (Such a letter May aussi be called Expired year employment reference or job reference ), admission to institutions of Higher Education , or scholarshipadmissibilité. Recommendations letters are usually specifically requested to be addressed to someone, and are therefore addressed to a particular requester (such as a new employer, university admissions officer, etc.), they may also be issued to the person being recommended without specifying an addressee . Continue reading “Recommendation letter”

Nursing shortage

Nursing shortage refers to a situation where the demand for nursing professionals , such as Registered Nurses (RNs), exceeds the supply-locally (eg, within a health care facility ), nationally or globally. It can be measured, for instance, when the nurse-to- patient ratio, the nurse-to-population ratio, or the number of job openings is higher. This situation is observed in developing nations around the world. Continue reading “Nursing shortage”

Nominative determinism

Nominative determinism is the hypothesis that people tend to gravitate towards areas of work that fit their names. The term was first used in the magazine New Scientist in 1994, after the magazine’s humorous feedback column noted several studies carried out by researchers with remarkably fitting supernames . These included a book on polar explorations by Daniel Snowman and an article on urology by researchers named Splatt and Weedon. These and other examples led to light-hearted speculation. Since the term appeared, nominative determinism has been an irregularly recurring topic in New Scientist, as readers continue to submit examples. Nominative determinism differs from the related concept aptronym , and Its synonyms aptonym, namephreak, and Perfect Fit Last Name, en ce que focusses it is causality. “Aptronym” simply means the name is fitting. Continue reading “Nominative determinism”

Job sharing

Job sharing or work sharing is an employment arrangement Where Typically two people are Retained were part-time or Reduced-time basis to perform a job Normally Fulfilled by one person working full-time . Since all positions are shared thus leads to a net reduction in income. The people sharing the job is a team responsible for the job workload. Compensation is apportioned between the workers. Working hours, pay and holidays are divided The pay as you go system makes national insurance deductions and superannuations are made as a straightforward percentage.[1] Continue reading “Job sharing”

List of OECD countries by job security

This is a list of OECD countries by job security , an important component in measuring quality of life and the well-being of its citizens. It lists OECD countries ‘workers’ chance of losing their job in 2012, with some non-OECD countries also included. Workers facing a high risk of job loss are more vulnerable, especially in countries with smaller social safety nets . This indicator has been developed in 2012, but was employed in 2011, but was employed in 2011. Continue reading “List of OECD countries by job security”

Job rotation

Job rotation is a technique used by some employers to rotate their jobs in their jobs. Employers practice this technique for a number of reasons. It is designed to promote flexibility in the employment of employees and employees. There is also research that shows how job rotations help relieve the stress of employees who work in a job that requires manual labor. Continue reading “Job rotation”

Job hunting

Job hunting , seeking job , or job searching is the act of looking for employment due to unemployment , underemployment , discontent with a current position or a desire for a better position. The immediate goal of job seeking is usually to obtenir a job interview with an employ qui May lead to getting hired . The job hunter or seeker typically looks for job vacancies or employment opportunities.


job , or occupation , is a person ‘s role in society. More specifically, a job is an activity, often regular and performed in exchange for payment (“for a living”). Many people have multiple jobs (eg, parent, homemaker, and employee). A person can begin by becoming an employee , volunteering , starting a business , or becoming a parent . The duration of a job can range from temporary (eg, hourly odd jobs) to a lifetime (eg, judges ). Continue reading “Job”

Iron rice bowl

“Iron rice bowl” ( simplified Chinese : 铁饭碗 ; traditional Chinese : 鐵飯碗 ; pinyin : Tie fàn wǎn ) is a Chinese term used to Refer to an occupation with guaranteed job security , as well as steady income and benefits. [1] The Chinese term can be compared to the similar (but not identical) English concept of a “job for life”. Traditionally, people regarded to-have iron rice bowls include military personnel, members of the civil service , as well as employees of various state run companies (through the mechanism of the work unit). [2] Continue reading “Iron rice bowl”

IPS Supported Employment

IPS Supported Employment is an evidence-based approach to supporting employment for people who have a mental illness. IPS stands for Individual Placement and Support . IPS supports people in their efforts to achieve steady, meaningful employment in mainstream competitive jobs, either part-time or full-time. This stands in contrast to other vocational rehabilitation approaches that employs people in sheltered workshops and other set-aside jobs. Continue reading “IPS Supported Employment”

Export-oriented employment

Export-oriented employment refers to employment in multinational corporations international industrial factories, usually located in developing countries . Such factories produce goods and services for sale in other countries. Whereas these multinationals have expanded their position in the world of employment, they have suggested that they be strengthened by gender and gender equality . [1] [2]Such gender inequities allow multinational firms to be more profitable than they would otherwise be. This decrease in the cost of labor comes from the relegation of women to certain occupations. Studies show that in the quest for lower labor costs, export-oriented facilities create poor working conditions. [3] Continue reading “Export-oriented employment”

Epilepsy and employment

Epilepsy can affect employment for a variety of reasons. Many employees are reluctant to hire a person they know their epilepsy, even if they are controlled by medication. If the employee suffers to seize them while at work, they could be harmless (but rarely others, contrary to popular belief) depending on the nature of the work. Employers are often more likely to be employed than others, ie, insurance costs, paid sick leave and so on. Many people Whose seizures are successfully controlled by medication has Suffer from a variety of side effects, Most notably drowsiness , qui May affect job performance. Many Laws Prohibit or restrict people with epilepsy from performing some duties, Most notably driving or operating dangerous machinery, thereby Lowering the pool of jobs available to people with epilepsy. Epilepsy sufferers are also prohibited from joining the armed forces, although they may work in certain civilian military positions. Continue reading “Epilepsy and employment”

Encore fellowships

Still fellowships are temporary work placement programs designed to help train private sector mid-life careerists transition into further career in the social sector . Similar to how a person might apply for an internship with a business prior to Applying for a full-time position, this temporary fellowship Allows a person to non-profit work first-hand without experience the long-term commitment of a full-time again career. [1] Continue reading “Encore fellowships”

Employment contract

An employment contract or contract of employment is a kind of contract used in labor law to attribute rights and responsibilities between parties to a bargain. The contract is between an “employee” and an “employ”. It has arisen out of the old master-serving law, used before the 20th century. But, the contract of employment denotes a relationship of economic dependence and social subordination. In the words of the controversial labor lawyer Sir Otto Kahn-Freund , Continue reading “Employment contract”


Employment is a relationship entre two parts , usually based were contract Where work is paid for, Where one party, qui May be a corporation , for profit , not-for-profit organization , co-operativeor other entity is the use and the other is the employee . [1] Employees work in pay for payment , which may be in the form of an hourly wage, by piecework or an annual salary , depending on the type of work or employment. Employees in some fields or sectors may receivefreeies , bonus payment or stock options . In some types of employment, employees may receive benefits in addition to payment. Benefits can include health insurance , housing , disability insurance or use of a gym. Estates estándustría estándustría estándustría estándustría estándustría estándustría estándustria. Continue reading “Employment”


A  job  or  occupation  is the role of a person in society. More precisely, a job is an activity, often regular and carried out in exchange for a payment (“to live”). Many people have multiple jobs (eg, parent, housewife, and employee). A person can start a job by becoming an employee, volunteering, starting a business or becoming a parent. The duration of a job can range from temporary (eg, odd hourly jobs) to a lifetime (eg, judges).

An activity that requires the mental or physical effort of a person is a job (as in “a day’s work”). If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession. Typically, a job would be a subset of someone’s career. Both may differ in that one usually  withdraws  from their career as opposed to  resigning  or  terminating  a job.

Continue reading “Jobs”