career is an individual’s metaphorical “journey” through learning, work and other aspects of life . There are a number of ways to define a career, and the term is used in a variety of ways.

Definitions and etymology

The word career is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as a person’s “race or progress through life”. In this definition is shown to a range of aspects of an individual’s life, learning and work. Career est Understood to frequently relates to the working aspects of an individual’s life as eg in career woman . A third way in which the term is used to describe an occupation or a profession that is usually involved in training or training, [1] and is considered to be a person’s lifework. [2] In this case “a career” is seen as a sequence of related jobs usually pursued within a single industry or sector “a career in education” or “a career in the building trade”.

Historic changes in careers

For a pre-modernist notion of “career”, compare cursus honorum .

By the late 20th century, a wide-range of choices (especially in the ranks of potential professions ) and more Widespread education HAD allowed it To Become feasible to map (Gold design) has career: in this respect the careers of the career counselor and of the career advisor have grown up. It is also not uncommon for adults in the late 20th century or early 20th century to have dual or multiple careers , either sequentially or concurrently. Thus, professional identities have become hyphenated or hybridized to reflect this shift in work ethic. Economist Richard Florida notes this trend and more specifically among the ” creative class “.

Career management

Career management describes the active and purposeful management of a career by an individual. Ideas of what comprised “career management skills” are Described by the Blueprint model (in the United States, Canada, Australia, Scotland and England [3] ) [4] and the Seven C’s of Digital Career Literacy (SPECIFICALLY Relating to the Internet skills ). [5]

Key skills include the ability to reflect on one’s current career, research the labor market , determine whether education is necessary, find openings, and make career changes.

Career choice

Further information: List of Largest Employers and List of Professions

According to Behling and others, an individual’s decision to join a firm is one of the three factors viz. objective factor, subjective factor and critical contact. [6]

  • Objective factor theory assumes that the applicants are rational. The choice, therefore, is exercised after an objective assessment of the tangible benefits of the job. Factors may include the salary, other benefits, rental, opportunities for career advancement, etc.
  • Subjective factor theory suggests that decision making is dominated by social and psychological factors. The status of the job, the reputation of the organization and other similar factors plays an important role.
  • Critical contact theory advances the idea that a candidate’s observations while interacting with the organization plays a vital role in decision making. For example, how to recruit in the response to the candidate, the promptness of response and similar factors are important. This theory is more valid with experienced professionals.

These theories assume that candidates have a free choice of employers and careers. In reality the scarcity of jobs and strong competition for desirable jobs The decision making process. In many markets employees work because they have been forced to accept anything. Additionally, Ott-Holland and colleagues found that culture can have a major influence on career choice, depending on the type of culture. [7]

When choosing a career that’s best for you, according to US News, there are multiple things to consider. Some of those include: natural talents, work style, social interaction, work-life balance, whether or not you are looking to give back, whether you are comfortable in the public eye, dealing with stress or not, and finally, how much money you want to make. If you want to change your mind, here’s another option: you can make a change in your mind. In today’s workplace, you do not need to go anywhere in your life. Make a smart decision, and plan to re-evaluate the line based on your long-term objectives. [8]

Career (occupation) changing

Changing occupation is an important aspect of career and career management. Over a lifetime, both the individual and the labor market will change; It is to be expected that many people will change occupations during their lives. Data collected by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics by the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth in 1979. [9]

A survey conducted by Right Management [10] suggests the following reasons for career changing.

  • The downsizing or restructuring of an organization (54%).
  • New challenges or opportunities that arise (30%).
  • Poor or ineffective leadership (25%).
  • Having a poor relationship with a manager (s) (22%).
  • For the improvement of work / life balance (21%).
  • Contributions are not being recognized (21%).
  • For better compensation and benefits (18%),
  • For better alignment with personal and organizational values ​​(17%).
  • Personal strengths and capabilities are not good with an organization (16%).
  • The financial instability of an organization (13%).
  • An organization relocated (12%).

According to an article on, one of three people is currently employed (as of 2008). [10]

Career success

Career success is a term used frequently in academic and popular writing about career. It refers to the extent and ways in which an individual can be described as successful in his or her life. [11]

Traditionally, career success has often been thought of in terms of earnings and / or status within an occupation or organization. This can be expressed in absolute terms (eg the amount a person earns) or in relative terms. Earnings and conditions are examples of objectives of success, where “objective” means that they can be factually verified, and are not strictly a matter of opinion.

Many observers argue that careers are less predictable than they once were, due to the rapid pace of economic change. [12] This means that career management is more obviously the responsibility of the individual rather than his or her employing organization, because a “job for life” is a thing of the past. This is more emphasis on subjective criteria of career success. [13] These include job satisfaction, career satisfaction, work-life balance, a sense of personal achievement, and attaining work that is consistent with one’s personal values. A person’s assessment of his or her career is likely to be influenced by social comparisons, such, friends, or contemporaries at school or college have done. [14]

The amount and type of career success has been achieved by several forms of career capital. [15] These include social capital , the human capital (demonstrable abilities, experiences and qualifications), economic capital (money and other materials resources) , and cultural capital (having skills, attitudes or general know-how to operate effectively in a particular social context). [16]

Career support

There are a range of different educational, counseling, and human resource management interventions that can support individuals to develop and manage their careers. Career support is commonly offered while people are in education, when they are transitioning to the labor market, when they are changing career, during periods of unemployment, and during transition to retirement. Support can be offered by career professionals, other professionals or by non-professionals such as family and friends. Professional career is known as “career guidance” in the OECD definition of career guidance:

The activities may take place on an individual or group basis, and may be face-to-face or at a distance (including helplines and web-based services). They include career information provision, assessment and self-assessment tools, counseling interviews, career education programs, taster programs, work search programs, and transition services. ” [17]

However, this use of the term “career guidance” may be confusing as it is commonly used to describe the activities of career counselors .

Provision of career support

Career support is offered by a range of different mechanisms. Much career support is informal and provided through personal networks or existing relationships such as management. There is a market for private career support, however, the bulk of career support is provided by the public sector. quote needed ]

Types of career support

Key types of career support include:

  • Career information describes information that supports career and learning choices. An important sub-set of career information is labor market information (LMI), such as employment of various occupations, employment rates in various occupations, and training programs.
  • Career assessments are tests that come in a variety of forms and rely on both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Career assessments can help them identify and better articulate their unique interests, personality, values, and skills to a certain career. Some skills that career can be determined by job-specific skills, transferable skills, and self-management skills. [18] Career assessments can also provide a window of opportunity for the learner, the experience, the training and the training. [19] Career counselors , executive coaches, educational institutions, career development centers, and outplacement companies .
  • Career counseling assesses people’s interests, personality, values ​​and skills, and helps them explore career options and research graduate and professional schools. Career counseling provides one-on-one or professional assistance in the field of decision making.
  • Career education describes how they come to learn about themselves, their careers and the world of work. There is a strong tradition of career education in schools, [20] however, career growth can also occur in a wider range of other contexts and further education and the workplace. A common used framework for careers education is DOTS which stands for decision learning (D), opportunity awareness (O), transition learning (T), and self-awareness (S). [21] Oftentimes, higher education is thought to be too narrowly focused and lacking of understanding of the material to develop the skills necessary for a certain career. [22]

Some research shows adding one year of schooling beyond high school to 17.8% per worker. However, additional years of schooling, beyond 9 or 10 years, have little effect on worker’s wages. In summary, better educated, bigger benefits. In 2010, 90% of the US Workforce had a high school diploma, 64% had some college, and 34% had at least a bachelor’s degree. [23]

The common problem that the people are experiencing. The career that comes with schooling. The benefits of schooling can be obtained, the programs can be awarded, and the ranking of the school. Sometimes, colleges provide students with care. It is not uncommon for colleges to provide pathways and support straight into the workforce may desire. [24]

Much career support is delivered face-to-face, but an increasing amount of career support is delivered online. [5]

See also

  • Job satisfaction
  • Employment
  • Profession


  1. Jump up^ career. 2012. Retrieved 20120-02-10.
  2. Jump up^ career. The Free Dictionary. 2013. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  3. Jump up^ “Careers Blueprint” . Excellence Gateway . Archived from the originalon 2014-07-24 . Retrieved 2014-01-11 .
  4. Jump up^ Hooley, T .; Watts, AG; Sultana, RG; Neary, S. (2013). The ‘blueprint’ framework for career management skills: a critical exploration. British Journal of Guidance & Counseling . 41 (2): 117. doi : 10.1080 / 03069885.2012.713908 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:b Hooley, T. (2012). “How the internet changed career: framing the relationship between career development and online technologies” (PDF) . Journal of the National Institute for Career Education and Counseling (NICEC) . 29 : 3.
  6. Jump up^ Schreuder, AMG (2006). Careers: An Organizational Perspective . p. 187. ISBN  9780702171758 .
  7. Jump up^ Ott-Holland, CJ; Huang, JL; Ryan, AM; Elizondo, F .; Wadlington, PL (October 2013). “Culture and Vocational Interests: The Moderating Role of Collectivism and Gender Equality” . Journal of Counseling Psychology . American Psychological Association. 60 (4): 569-581. doi : 10.1037 / a0033587 . Retrieved 31 January 2014 .
  8. Jump up^ Tim Tyrell-Smith. “How to Choose a Career That’s Best for You” . US News & World Report .
  9. Jump up^ “National Longitudinal Surveys”. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  10. ^ Jump up to:b Cullen, LT (28 May 2008) “Top Reasons Why we change jobs” . Time.
  11. Jump up^ Gunz and Heslin (2005). “Reconceptualising career success”. Journal of Organizational Behavior . 26 : 105-111.
  12. Jump up^ Inkson, Dries and Arnold (2014). Understanding Careers, 2nd edition . London: Sage. ISBN  978-1-44628-291-5 .
  13. Jump up^ Hall and Chandler (2005). “Psychological success: When the career is a calling”. Journal of Organizational Behavior . 26 : 155-176.
  14. Jump up^ Heslin, Peter (2003). “Self and other referent criteria of career success”. Journal of Career Assessment . 11 : 262-286.
  15. Jump up^ Arnold, Randall; et al. (2016). Work Psychology, 6th edition . Harlow: Pearson. pp. 555-558.
  16. Jump up^ Ng and Feldman (2014). “Subjective career success: A meta-analytic review”. Journal of Vocational Behavior . 85 : 169-179.
  17. Jump up^ Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development & European Commission (OECD & EC) (2004). Career Guidance: A Handbook for Policy Makers. Paris: OECD. ISBN 9264015191.
  18. Jump up^ UCDavis Human Resources. 2010. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  19. Jump up^ “Why is a Career Assessment Important?”Success Factors. 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  20. Jump up^ Hooley, T., Marriott, J., Watts, AG and Coiffait, L. (2012). Careers 2020: Options for Future Careers Work in English ArchivedSchoolsJanuary 11, 2014, at theWayback Machine.. London: Pearson.
  21. Jump up^ Law, B. & Watts, AG (1977). Schools, Careers and Community: A Study of Some Approaches to Careers Education in Schools. London: Church Information Office. ISBN 0715190296.
  22. Jump up^ Grubb, WN; Lazerson, M. (2005). “Vocationalism in Higher Education: The Triumph of Gospel Education”. The Journal of Higher Education . 76 : 1. doi :10.1353 / jhe.2005.0007 .
  23. Jump up^ DeVol, R., Shen, I., Bedroussian, A., Zhang, N. (2013). A Matter of Degrees: The Effect of Educational Attainment on Regional Economic Prosperity. Milken Institute
  24. Jump up^ Brennan, Susan. (2013-02-13)How To Prepare Students For The Current Economy – Yahoo Finance. Retrieved on 2014-01-11.

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