Effective altruism

Effective altruism is a philosophy and social movement that aims to be more effective and efficient. [1] Effective altruism encourages individuals to consider all causes and actions and to act in the most positive way, based on their values. [2] It is the broad, evidence-based approach that distinguishes effective altruism from traditional altruism or charity . [3]

While a substantial proportion of effective altruists have been focused on the nonprofit sector , the philosophy of effective altruism applies more broadly to prioritizing the scientific projects, companies, and policy initiatives which can be estimated to save lives, help people, or otherwise have the biggest benefit. . [4] People associated with the movement include philosopher Peter Singer , [5] Facebook cofounder Dustin Moskovitz , [6] Oxford based Researchers William MacAskill [7] and Toby Ord [8] and professional poker player Liv Boeree . [9] [10]


Peter Singer is a prominent advocate of effective altruism.

Effective altruism differs from other philanthropic practices because of its emphasis on quantitative and charitable causes and interventions with the goal of maximizing certain moral values. In this way it is similar to consequentialism , which some leaders of the movement explicitly endorse. [11] The views of the philosopher Peter Singer in particular contributed to the effective altruist movement. [12] Singer’s book The Life You Can Save For the basic philosophy of effective giving, claiming that people have a moral imperative to donate more because of the existence of extreme poverty. In the book, Singer argued that people should use charity evaluatorsto determine how to make their donations most effective. Singer gives a third of his income to charity. [13]

Cause prioritization

Although there is a growing emphasis on effectiveness among nonprofits, this is usually done with a single cause in mind, such as education or climate change. Effective altruists, however, seek to compare the relative importance of different causes, a concept that is usually referred to as cause neutrality. [14] [15] [16] [17]

Effective altruists choose the highest priority causes of increased human or animal welfare. They then focus their attention on interventions in high priority areas. Several organizations are performing cause priority research. [2] [18] [19]

Some priorities of effective altruists include poverty in the developing world , the suffering of animals in factory farms , and risks to civilization, humans and planet Earth . [4] [14] [16]


Effective altruist organizations claim that some charities are far more effective than others, because they do not achieve their goals or because of variability in the cost of achieving those goals. [20] [21] Where possible, they seek to identify charities that are highly cost-effective , meaning that they achieve a large benefit for a given amount of money. [7] For example, They select health interventions on the basis of Their impact as Measured by lives saved per dollar, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) saved per dollar, or disability-adjusted life years(DALY) warned per dollar. This measure of disease is expressed as ill-health, disability or early death.

Effective altruism organisms use randomized controlled trials as a primary form of evidence, [7] [22] as They Are Often regarded to be at the Highest Level of strong evidence in healthcare research. [23] They also make philanthropic recommendations for charities on the basis of their actual funding rather than merely by the value of the work itself. [24] [25]


Effective altruists reject the view that some lives are intrinsically more valuable than others. For example, they believe that a person in a country has equal value in their own community. [12] In the 1972 essay ‘ Famine, Affluence, and Morality ‘, Peter Singer wrote:

It makes no difference whether you are a neighbor of Bengali whose name I shall never know, ten thousand miles away. … The moral point of view requires us to look beyond the interests of our own society. Previously …, this may hardly have been possible, but it is quite possible now. From the moral point of view, the prevention of the starvation of millions of people in our society. [26]

In addition, many effective altruists think that future generations have equal moral value to currently existing people, so they focus on reducing existential risks to humanity . Others believe that the interests of non-human animalsshould be accorded the same moral weight as similar interests of humans and work to prevent the suffering of animals, [22] such as those raised in factory farms. [27]

Counterfactual reasoning

Effective altruists argue that counterfactual reasoning is important to determine which course of action maximizes positive impact. Many people assume que la best way to help people is live through methods, Such As working for a charity or social providing good services, [28] [29] goal since charities and social service providers usually can find people willing to work for ’em, effective altruists compares the amount of goodness of a person in the past. According to this reasoning, the impact of a career may be smaller than it appears. [30]

Room for more funding

Effective altruists avoid donating to organizations that have no “room for more funding” – which they have already accumulated or are expected to receive. [31] For example, it is capable of purchasing, or it may be all of the potential patients in its market. There are Many other organisms qui do -have room for more funding, so giving to One of Those INSTEAD Would Produce real-world improvements.



Effective altruism encourages significant charitable donation. Some believe it is a moral duty to Alleviate Suffering through donations if the purchases Single That One forgoes to donate do not because comparable Suffering to oneself, [26] leading Reviews some of ’em to lead a frugal lifestyle in order to give Substantially more than is typical in their society. [32] Advocacy focuses on increasing the number of people who identify or identify nonprofits that best meet the criteria of effective altruism.

Giving What We Can (GWWC) is an organization that has at least 10% of its income for the rest of the working lives that they believe is most effective. GWWC was founded in November 2009 by Toby Ord , a moral philosopher at Oxford University , who lives on £ 18,000 ($ 27,000) per year and donates the remainder of his income to charity. [33] As of 2017, more than 2500 individuals took the pledge. [34] [35]

The Founders Pledge is a similar system run by the nonprofit Founders Forum for the best of their business. [36] [37] [38] By May 2016, one year after launch, 430 entrepreneurs had pledged, for an estimated total value of $ 134 million based on the founders ‘equity and the companies’ valuation. [39]

Career selection

Effective altruists argues That selection of one’s career is significant year determinant of the amount of good one does, [15] Both Directly (through the services one Provides to the world) and Indirectly (through the ways one direct the money earned based on the career ). [40]

80,000 Hours is an Oxford , UK -based organization in the effective altruism movement that writes articles and conducts one-on-one coaching to help people find a positive social impact. [41] It considers indirect methods of altruistic employment, such as a high salary in a salary and a portion of it, as well as direct practices, such as scientific research. It was co-founded by William MacAskill , [42] who is also its current president. [43]

The earning to give a strategy has been proposed as a possible strategy for effective altruists. This strategy involves high-paying careers with the explicit goal of donating large sums of money to charity. [44] Benjamin Todd and William MacAskill argued que la-have marginal impact of one’s action in unethical Potentially Such a lucrative career Would Be small since someone else Would Have Them done Regardless, while the impact of donations Would Be wide. [40]

This is a practice which has attracted controversy. David Brooks , a columnist for the New York Times , criticized effective altruists who adopt the strategy. He wrote that most people who work in high-paying and high-paying industries value money for selfish reasons and that being surrounded by these people will cause effective altruists to become less altruistic. [45] Some effective altruists acknowledge this possibility and aim to reduce the risk through online communities, public pledges, and donations through donor-advised funds . [46] In The Week , Pascal-Emmanuel Gobry argued that taking a “unethical” job is fundamentally immoral, no matter the reason. [47]

Cause priorities

Effective altruism aspires to be cause neutral, meaning it is in principle open to helping in whichever areas will do the most good. [16] [17] [48] In practice, people in the effective altruist movement [2] [22] [49] [50]

Global poverty alleviation

Global poverty has been a focus of some of the earliest and most prominent organizations associated with effective altruism.

Charity evaluator GiveWell was founded by Holden Karnofsky and Elie Hassenfeld in 2007 to address poverty and is currently a part of the effective altruism movement. [51] [52] GiveWell has argued that the value of donations is greatest for international poverty alleviation and developing world health issues, [53] [21] and its leading recommendations in these areas [54] [55] ( Against Malaria Foundation , Schistosomiasis Control Initiative , Deworm the World Initiative , and VillageReach in global health, and GiveDirectly for direct unconditional cash transfers).

Giving What We Can Do is focused on the causes of global poverty [56] and does in-house research and causes and charities, but largely relies on other organizations such as GiveWell . [57]

The organization The Life You Can Save, which originates from the book by the same name , also focuses on global poverty. [58]

While much of the initial focus of effective altruism has been in place, it has also been of interest in social, economic, and political reform. [59] In September 2011, GiveWell announced GiveWell Labs, [60] which was later renamed to the ” Open Philanthropy Project “, for further speculative reasons. It is a collaboration between GiveWell and Good Ventures , a philanthropic foundation founded by Facebook co-founder Dustin Moskovitz and his wife Cari Tuna. [61] [62] [63]

Animal welfare

Many believe effective altruists That Reducing Animal Suffering shoulds be a major priority and That, at the current margin, there are cost-effective ways of Accomplishing this. [64] Peter Singer quotes the United Nations and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization of the British Fishcount Organization according to which 60 billion land animals are slaughtered and between 1 and 2.7 trillion individual fish are killed each year for human consumption. [65] [66] [67] He argues that effective animal welfare should be given priority to overfunded pet welfare. [13]Singer also argues that, if farm animals such as chickens are assigned to a modicum of consciousness, efforts to reduce farming (for example, by reducing global meat consumption) could be more than human poverty reduction. [68] Philosophically, wild animal suffering may be an additional moral concern for effective altruists. [69]

Animal Charity Evaluators (ACE, formerly called Expired Effective Animal Activism) is an organization connected with the movement and COMPARATIVE That Evaluates various animal charities based on Their cost-effectiveness and transparency, PARTICULARLY Those That are Tackling factory farming . [70] [71] Faunalytics (formerly the Humane Research Council) is an organization loosely affiliated with the movement that conducts independent research on important animal welfare topics, provides resources for advocates and donors, and works with animal protection organizations to evaluate their work.

Long term future and global catastrophic risks

Some effective altruists believe that the long term future is extremely important. Specifically they believe that the total value of any meaningful metric (wealth, potential for suffering, potential for happiness, etc.) is far beyond the future. [2] [72] [73] In Particular, the importance of Addressing existential Risks Such As dangers associated with biotechnology and advanced artificial intelligence is Often highlight highlighted and the subject of active research.

Some organizations that work actively on research and advocacy for the future, and have connections with the effective altruist movement, are the Future of Humanity Institute , Center for the Study of Existential Risk , and Future of Life Institute . [74] In addition, the Machine Intelligence Research Institute is focused on the more narrow mission of advanced artificial intelligence. [75] [76]

History as a social movement

The ideas behind effective altruism, such as consequentialism , have been presented in the context of long-term ethics and have been reflected in the writings of the philosophers Peter Singer [12] and Peter Unger . A basic argument for altruism was defined in Singer’s 1972 paper ” Famine, Affluence, and Morality “, in which he argued that

If it is in our power to prevent something bad from happening, then it must be sacrificing anything of comparable moral importance, then we should, morally, to do it. [26]

However, the movement of identification with the name ‘effective altruism’ itself only came into being in the late 2000s, [77] centered around such organizations as Giving What We Can .

Effective altruism conferences have been held since 2013. [27] [78] In 2015, Peter Singer published The Most Good You Can Do , a book on effective altruism. The book describes the philosophy and social movement of effective altruism and argues in favor of it. [13] In the Sami year William MacAskill published His book Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Make a Difference qui further Top Helped to popularize the movement. [79] [80] [81]


David Brooks has questioned whether children in remote countries should be treated as having equal moral value. He claims that morality should be “internally ennobling”. [45] Pascal-Emmanuel Gobry warns about the “measurement problem”, stating in some areas, such as medical research, or helping to reform third-world governance “one grinding step at a time”, are hard to measure with controlled cost- effectiveness and risk being undervalued by the effective altruism movement. [47] In the Stanford Social Innovation Review , Ken Berger and Robert Penna of Charity Navigatorcondemned effective altruism’s practice of “weighing causes and beneficiaries against one another”, calling this “moralistic, in the worst sense of the word”. [82]

In Jacobin magazine, Mathew Snow argues that effective altruism “implores individuals to use their money for those who need it.” [83] However, Joshua Kissel argues that anti-capitalism is compatible with effective altruism in theory, while adding that effective altruists and anti-capitalists are more likely to be sympathetic to each other. [48]

Notes and references

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  2. ^ Jump up to:d Matthews, Dylan (April 24, 2015). “You have $ 8 billion, what do you do?” . Vox . Retrieved April 27, 2015 .
  3. Jump up^ Bennett, Nicole; Carter, Ashley; Resney, Romney; Woods, Wendy. “How Tech Entrepreneurs Are Disrupting Philanthropy” . BCG Perspectives . Boston Consulting Group . Retrieved 11 March 2017 .
  4. ^ Jump up to:b MacAskill, William (2015). Doing Good Better . Avery. ISBN  978-1592409105 .
  5. Jump up^ Walters, Helen. “The why and how of effective altruism: Peter Singer’s visualized talk” . TED Blog .
  6. Jump up^ “Carl Tuna and Dustin Moskovitz: Young Silicon Valley billionaires pioneer new approach to philanthropy” . The Washington Post. December 26, 2014.
  7. ^ Jump up to:c Thompson, Derek (June 15, 2015). “The Greatest Good” . The Atlantic.
  8. Jump up^ “Peter Singer:” The Most Good You Can Do “| Talks at Google” . YouTube .
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  10. Jump up^ “Effective Altruism | Liv Boeree” . www.livboeree.com . Retrieved 2017-04-11 .
  11. Jump up^ Matthews, Dylan (April 24, 2015). “You have $ 8 billion, what do you do?” . Vox . Retrieved August 4, 2015 .
  12. ^ Jump up to:c Jollimore, Troy (6 February 2017). “Impartiality” . The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University . Retrieved 11 March 2017 .
  13. ^ Jump up to:c Kristof, Nicholas (April 4, 2015). “The Trader Who Donates Half His Pay” . New York Times . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  14. ^ Jump up to:b Gabriel, Iason (2016). “Effective Altruism and Its Critics” . Journal of Applied Philosophy . 33 (3). doi : 10.1111 / japp.12176 . Retrieved 11 March 2017 .
  15. ^ Jump up to:b Oliver Huw. ” ‘ Effective Altruists’ Are a New Type of Nice Person” . Vice . Vox . Retrieved 11 March 2017 .
  16. ^ Jump up to:c MacAskill, William (May 20, 2013). “What is Effective Altruism?”. Practical Ethics blog . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
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  22. ^ Jump up to:c Skelton, Anthony (2016). “The Ethical Principles of Effective Altruism” . Journal of Global Ethics . 12 (2): 137-146 . Retrieved 11 March 2017 .
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  24. Jump up^ Zhang, Linch (21 June 2016). “How Can You Do This With Your Charitable Giving?” This Expert’s Answers Might Surprise You . Huffington Post . Retrieved 18 March 2017 .
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  26. ^ Jump up to:c “Famine, Affluence, and Morality” (PDF) . 1972. p. 231. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-11-06 . Retrieved 2011-05-23 .
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  69. Jump up^ ” ” Effective Altruism for Animals “Panel, Animal Studies” . New York University Animal Studies Initiative . NYU . Retrieved 11 March 2017 .
  70. Jump up^ Daniel Engber,”Save the Chicken”,Slate, August 18th 2016.
  71. Jump up^ Singer 2015, p. 139.
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  83. Jump up^ Snow, Mathew (August 25, 2015). “Against Charity” . Jacobin . Retrieved September 5, 2016 .

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