Holland Codes

The Holland Codes or the Occupational Themes (RIASEC) refers to a theory of careers and vocational choice (based on personality types ) that was first developed by American psychologist John L. Holland . [1] [2]

The US Department of Labor ETA has-been using an updated and expanded version of of the RIASEC model in the “Interests” section of its free online database, the Occupational Information Network (O * NET) , [3] since icts inception During the late 1990s . [4] [5]

Background

Holland made a career out of studying the world of work, pioneering the theory that if people were aware of their type or combination of types – realistic, investigative, artistic, social, or enterprising – they would be happier workers.

-Amy Lunday [1]

Holland’s theories of vocational choice, The Holland Occupational Themes, “now pervades career counseling research and practice.” [2] Its origins can be traced to an article in the Journal of Applied Psychology in 1958 and a later article in 1959 that set out its theory of vocational choices. a sense of veiled expression of underlying character. ” [6] The 1959 article in particular (“The Theory of Vocational Choice,” published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology ) is considered the first major introduction to Holland’s “theory of vocational personalities and work environments.”

Holland originally labeled his six types as “motoric, intellectual, aesthetic, supportive, persuasive, and conforming.” [2] He later developed and changed to: Realistic (Doers), Investigative (Thinkers), Artistic (Creators), Social (Helpers), Enterprising (Persuaders), and Conventional (Organizers). ” [7] Professor John Johnson of Penn State suggests that an alternative way of categorizing the six types would be through former social roles: “hunters (Realistic), shamans (Investigative), artisans (Artistic), healers (Social), leaders (Enterprising), and lorekeepers (Conventional) . ” [8]

According to the Committee on Scientific Awards, Holland’s “research shows that personalities seek out and flourish in career environments and they are classifiable by the personalities that flourish in them.” [9] Holland also wrote of his theory that “the choice of a vocation is an expression of personality.” [10] Furthermore, while Holland suggests that people can be “categorized as one of six types,” [11]He also argues that “a six-category scheme is one of six kinds of people in the world that is unacceptable on the strength of common sense. each of the six models provides the possibility of 720 different personality patterns. ” [12]

List of types

R: Realistic (Doers)

People who are “independent, stable, persistent, genuine, practical, and thrifty […] no-nonsense, down-to-earth […] physical, athletic, or mechanical.” They prefer “things rather than ideas or people […] being outdoors, using tools, operating machines, interacting with animals, and working with their hands.” They also value the “natural, concrete, and tangible.” [13] Sample majors and careers include:

  • Aerospace / Aeronautical Engineer (with Investigative) [14]
  • Agriculture [15]
  • Anthropology / Paleontology (with Investigative) [14]
  • Architect (with Artistic and Enterprising) [15]
  • Astronomy (with Investigative) [14]
  • Carpenter (with Conventional and Investigative) [15]
  • Chef (with Enterprising and Artistic) [15]
  • Chemistry / Chemist (with Investigative and Conventional) [15]
  • Computer Engineering / Computer Science / Information Technology / Computer Programmer (with Investigative and Conventional) [15] [16]
  • Dance (with Artistic) [14]
  • Dentist (with Investigative and Social) [15]
  • Engineer (with Investigative and Conventional) [15] [16]
  • Environmental science [14]
  • Fashion design (with Artistic and Enterprising) [15]
  • Fine Artist, Including Painter, Sculptor and Illustrator (with Artistic) [17]
  • Firefighter (with Social and Enterprising) [15]
  • Graphic designer (with Artistic and Enterprising) [15]
  • Interior design (with Artistic) [14]
  • Model (people) (with Artistic and Enterprising) [15]
  • Musician (with Artistic and Enterprising) [15]
  • Nurse (with Social, Conventional, and Investigative) [15] [16]
  • Park Naturalist (with Social and Artistic) [15]
  • Personal trainer (with Enterprising and Social) [15]
  • Photographer (with Artistic and Enterprising) [15]
  • Physical therapy (with Social and Investigative) [15]
  • Driver [15]
  • Surgeon (with Investigative and Social) [15]
  • Veterinarian (with Investigative and Social) [15]
  • Web developer (with Conventional, Artistic, and Investigative) [15]
  • Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists (with Investigative) [15]

I: Investigative (Thinkers)

People who are “intellectual, introspective, […] inquisitive […] curious, methodical, rational, analytical, and logical.” They prefer “tasks that are scholarly, scientific, technical, or medical [… and] activities that involve thought, observation, investigation, exploration, and discovery […] They like to solve problems, perform experiments, and conduct research.” [13] Sample majors and careers include:

  • Actuary (with Conventional and Enterprising) [15] [16]
  • Archivist / Librarian (with Social and Conventional) [15]
  • Carpenter (with Conventional and Realistic) [15]
  • Chemistry / Chemist (with Realistic and Conventional) [15] [16]
  • College / University Faculty (with Enterprising and Social) [18]
  • Computer engineering / Computer science / Information technology / Computer programming (with Realistic and Conventional) [15] [16]
  • Counselor (with Social and Artistic) [15] [16]
  • Dentist (with Realistic and Social) [15]
  • Dietitian / Nutritionist (with Social and Enterprising) [15]
  • Economics (with Conventional and Social) [14]
  • Engineer (with Realistic and Conventional) [15] [16]
  • Finance (with Enterprising and Conventional) [15] [16]
  • Lawyer (with Enterprising and Social) [14] [15]
  • Mathematician (with Artistic)
  • Nurse (with Realistic, Conventional, and Social) [15] [16]
  • Pharmacist (with Social and Conventional), [15]
  • Physical therapy (with Social and Realistic) [15]
  • Physician ( Medical School / Medical research ) (with Social) [15] [16]
  • Physics [16]
  • Poets, Lyricists and Creative Writers (with Artistic) [19]
  • Psychology / Psychologist (with Social and Artistic) [15] [16]
  • Social Work [15]
  • Surgeon (with Realistic and Social) [15]
  • Technical Writer (with Artistic and Conventional) [15]
  • Tutor (with Social) [20]
  • Veterinarian (with Realistic and Social) [15]
  • Web developer (with Conventional, Realistic, and Artistic) [15]
  • Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists (with Realistic) [15]

A: Artistic (Creators)

People who “are creative, intuitive, sensitive, articulate […], expressive, unstructured, original, nonconforming, and innovative [… who] rely on feelings, imagination […], inspiration [and … who] are spontaneous and open-minded . ” They prefer to “work with ideas, abstractions, and concepts.” They also enjoy work that is ” literary , verbal, visual, and aesthetic ” and excel in “art, music, dance, drawing, painting, sculpting, drafting , writing, drama, communicating , design, fashion.” [13] [16] Sample majors and careers include:

  • Architect (with Realistic and Enterprising) [15]
  • Broadcast journalism (with Enterprising) [15]
  • Clergy (with Social and Enterprising) [15]
  • Chef (with Enterprising and Realistic) [15]
  • Counselor (with Investigative and Social) [15] [16]
  • Dance (with Realistic) [14]
  • Fashion design (with Realistic and Enterprising) [15]
  • Fine Artist, Including Painter, Sculptor and Illustrator (with Realistic) [17]
  • Graphic designer (with Enterprising and Realistic) [15]
  • Interior design (with Realistic) [14]
  • Model (people) (with Realistic and Enterprising) [15]
  • Musician (with Enterprising and Realistic) [15]
  • Park Naturalist (with Social and Realistic) [15]
  • Poets, Lyricists and Creative Writers (with Investigative) [19]
  • Psychology / Psychologist (with Social and Investigative); Art Therapist / Dance Therapy / Drama Therapy / Music Therapy (with social) [15] [16]
  • Public Relations (with Enterprising) [15]
  • Photographer (with Realistic and Enterprising) [15]
  • Teacher (with Social) [15] [16]
  • Technical Writer (with Investigative and Conventional) [15]
  • Trainer (business) (with Social and Conventional) [15]
  • Web developer (with Conventional, Realistic, and Investigative) [15]

S: Social (Helpers)

People who are kind, generous, cooperative, patient, caring, helpful, empathetic, tactful, and friendly. They prefer tasks that involve “socializing, helping others, and teaching […] teamwork, social interaction, relationship building [… and] humanitarian, educational, philanthropic, interpersonal, and service-oriented.” [13] Sample majors and careers include:

  • Archivist / Librarian (with Conventional and Investigative) [15]
  • Clergy (with Artistic and Enterprising) [15]
  • College / University Faculty (with Enterprising and Investigative) [18]
  • Community Organizer [16]
  • Counselor (with Investigative and Artistic) [15] [16]
  • Customer service (with Conventional and Enterprising) [15]
  • Dentist (with Investigative and Realistic) [15]
  • Dietitian / Nutritionist (with Investigative and Enterprising) [15]
  • Economics (with Investigative and Conventional) [14]
  • Education (Teacher / Counselor / Administration)
  • Educational administration (with Enterprising and Conventional) [15]
  • Firefighter (with Realistic and Enterprising) [15]
  • Fitness Trainer and Aerobics Teacher (with Enterprising and Realistic) [15]
  • Foreign Service / Diplomacy (with Enterprising and Artistic) [21]
  • Human Resources (with Conventional and Enterprising) [15]
  • Lawyer (with Investigative and Enterprising) [14] [15]
  • Nurse (with Realistic, Conventional, and Investigative) [15] [16]
  • Park Naturalist (with Realistic and Artistic) [15]
  • Pharmacist (with Investigative and Conventional) [15]
  • Physical therapy (with Realistic and Investigative) [15]
  • Physician ( Medical School / Medical research ) (with Investigative) [15] [16]
  • Psychology / Psychologist (with Investigative and Artistic) [15] [16]
  • Social Advocate [16]
  • Sociology [16]
  • Social Work [15]
  • Surgeon (with Realistic and Investigative) [15]
  • Teacher ( Early childhood education , Primary school , Secondary school , Teaching English as a Second Language , Special Ed , and Substitute teaching ) (with Artistic) [15] [16] [22]
  • Trainer (business) (with Artistic and Conventional) [15]
  • Tutor (with Investigative) [20]
  • Veterinarian (with Investigative and Realistic) [15]

E: Enterprising (Persuaders)

People who “are adventurous, ambitious, assertive, extroverted, energetic, enthusiastic, confident […], optimistic […], dominant, persuasive, and motivational.” They prefer work that involves “leadership, business, politics, public speaking […], being in charge, taking risks, debating , and competing.” [13] Sample majors and careers include:

  • Actuary (with Investigative and Conventional) [15] [16]
  • Architect (with Artistic and Realistic) [15]
  • Business [16]
  • Buyer [16]
  • Chef (with Realistic and Artistic) [15]
  • Clergy (with Artistic and Social) [15]
  • College / University Faculty (with Social and Investigative) [18]
  • Customer service (with Conventional and Social) [15]
  • Dietitian / Nutritionist (with Social and Investigative) [15]
  • Educational administration (with Social and Conventional) [15]
  • Contractor [16]
  • Fashion design (with Artistic and Realistic) [15]
  • Finance (with Conventional and Investigative) [15] [16]
  • Foreign Service / Diplomacy (with Social and Artistic) [21]
  • Firefighter (with Social and Realistic) [15]
  • Fitness Trainer and Aerobic Teacher (with Realistic and Social) [15]
  • Fundraising [16]
  • Graphic designer (with Artistic and Realistic) [15]
  • Human Resources (with Conventional and Social) [15]
  • Broadcast journalism (with Artistic) [15]
  • Lawyer (with Investigative and Social) [14] [15]
  • Management / Management Consultant [16]
  • Market Research Analyst [16]
  • Model (people) (with Artistic and Realistic) [15]
  • Musician (with Artistic and Realistic) [15]
  • Photographer (with Artistic and Realistic) [15]
  • Public Relations / Publicity / Advertising / Marketing (with Artistic) [15]
  • Real Estate (with Conventional) [15] [16]
  • Sales (with Conventional and Social) [15]

C: Conventional (Organizers)

People who are “conscientious and conservative […] logical, efficient, orderly […], organized […], thorough, and detail-oriented.” They are individuals who “value precision and accuracy.” They excel in “practical tasks, quantitative measurements, and structured environments” and who “follow the rules.” They prefer work that involves “accounting, statistics […], mathematics, numerical activities, and office settings.” [13] Sample majors and careers include:

  • Accounting / Tax advisor [16]
  • Actuary (with Investigative and Enterprising) [15] [16]
  • Archivist / Librarian (with Social and Investigative) [15]
  • Carpenter (with Realistic and Investigative) [15]
  • Chemistry / Chemist (with Investigative and Realistic) [15]
  • Computer engineering / Computer science / Information technology / Computer programming (with Investigative and Realistic) [15] [16]
  • Customer service (with Enterprising and Social) [15]
  • Economics (with Investigative and Social) [14]
  • Educational administration (with Social and Enterprising) [15]
  • Engineer (with Investigative and Realistic) [15] [16]
  • Finance (with Enterprising and Investigative) [15] [16]
  • Human Resources (with Enterprising and Social) [15]
  • Math teacher [16]
  • Nurse (with Realistic, Social, and Investigative) [15] [16]
  • Pharmacist (with Social and Investigative), [15]
  • Real Estate (with Enterprising) [15] [16]
  • Statistician (with Realistic and Investigative) [15]
  • Technical Writer (with Artistic and Investigative) [15]
  • Trainer (business) (with Social and Artistic) [15]
  • Web developer (with Artistic, Realistic, and Investigative) [15]

See also

  • Strong Interest Inventory

Notes

  1. ^ Jump up to:b “John L. Holland, 1919-2008: A Select Bibliography added to the Tribute & Obituary” . NCDA. 2008-11-27 . Retrieved 2015-12-07 .
  2. ^ Jump up to:d ” The Development, Evolution, and Status of Holland’s Theory of Vocational Personalities: Reflections and Future Directions for Counseling Psychology .” Journal of Counseling Psychology , Vol 57 (1), 2010, 11-22.
  3. Jump up^ “O * NET OnLine: Interests” . Occupational Information Network . Retrieved 2015-12-07 .
  4. Jump up^ Matthew, Mariana (1999). “Replace with a database: O * NET replaces the Dictionary of Occupational Titles” (PDF) . Occupational Outlook Quarterly Online, Spring 1999 Vol. 43, Number 1 . Retrieved 2015-12-07 .
  5. Jump up^ Rounds, James Patrick (2008). “Second Generation Occupational Interest Profiles for the O * NET System: Summary” (PDF) . The National Center for O * NET Development, June 2008 . Retrieved 2015-12-07 .
  6. Jump up^ Athanasou, James. “Obituary: John L. Holland 1919-2008”Australian Journal of Career Development, September 22, 2009.
  7. Jump up^ “Holland Codes” (PDF) . New Hampshire Employment Security, Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau . Retrieved 2015-12-07 .
  8. Jump up^ Johnson, John (2013-06-13). “Selfless Service, Part II: Different Types of Seva” . Psychology Today . Retrieved 2015-12-07 .
  9. Jump up^ “Award for distinguished scientific applications of psychology: John L. Holland.” American Psychologist, Vol 63 (8), Nov 2008, 672-674.
  10. Jump up^ Holland, John. Making Vocational Choices: a theory of careers. (Prentice-Hall, 1973): 6.
  11. Jump up^ Holland, John. Making Vocational Choices: a theory of careers. (Prentice-Hall, 1973): 2.
  12. Jump up^ Holland, John. Making Vocational Choices: a theory of careers. (Prentice-Hall, 1973): 3.
  13. ^ Jump up to:f “Careers and Personality: Birmingham-Southern College Career Services” (PDF) . Birmingham-Southern College . Retrieved 2015-12-07.
  14. ^ Jump up to:n “OR Career Services: Majors By Holland Codes” . University of Oklahoma . Retrieved 2015-12-07 .
  15. ^ Jump up to:aa ab ac ad aeaf ag ah have aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as Has the av aw axay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bsbt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd this cf cg ch latter cj ck cl cmcn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd from df dgdh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr “State of Delaware Department of Labor, Office of Occupational and Labor Market Information: Publications Delaware Career Compass”. State of Delaware. Retrieved2015-12-07 .
  16. ^ Jump up to:aa ab ac ad aeaf ag ah have aj ak al am an ao ap “Career / Major Interests Game ” . Georgetown University . Retrieved 2015-12-07 .
  17. ^ Jump up to:b “Advertising and Graphic Design” . Central Piedmont Community College . Retrieved 2015-12-07.
  18. ^ Jump up to:c Schools By Holland Code: AES (PDF) . Monroe Community College . Retrieved 2015-12-07 .
  19. ^ Jump up to:b “Summary Report for: 25-3099.02 – Poets, Lyricists and Creative Writers” . Occupational Information Network . Retrieved 2017-06-16 .
  20. ^ Jump up to:b “Summary Report for: 25-3099.02 – Tutors” . Occupational Information Network . Retrieved 2017-06-16 .
  21. ^ Jump up to:b “Purdue Career Center” (PDF) . Purdue University . Retrieved 2016-05-15 .
  22. Jump up^ “Job Environment: Social” . Rogue Community College . Retrieved 2015-12-07 .

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