Organization workshop

The Organization workshop ( OW ) – or “Laboratorio Organizacional” (LO) in both Portuguese and Spanish – is a CHAT -based learning event where participants master new organizational and social skills through a learning-by-doing approach. It is aimed at large groups of unemployed and underemployed, with a large number of LLEs. The OW addresses locally identified problems which can only be solved by collaborating groups. During a workshop participants form a temporary enterprise which they themselves manage, an enterprise which contracts to do work at market rates. Once the workshop is temporary, it is over, organizational, management and vocational skills can be used.

The creator of the OW is the Brazilian sociologist Clodomir Santos de Morais . [1] The main elements of the workshop are a large group of people (stipulated originally by Morais as “minimum 40, with no upper limit” [2] [3] the freedom [4] to organize themselves within the law and all Necessary resources in the hands of the group. [5] [6]de Morais’ OW guidelines, [7] [8] Originally distributed in mimeographed form, Were (re) printed in Several countries, languages and formats (Including popular cartoon) English by Ian Cherrett for use in English Africa. [9]

Field of study

of Morais’ initial observation was that people, forced by circumstances and sharing a single basic resource, learning to organize in a complex manner, involving a division of labor . During the seminal (1954 Recife , Brazil) event which he attended, a large group of activists had gathered in an ordinary town house, where “the cramped conditions of the house, combined with the need for secrecy so as not to arouse the suspicion of the police, … a strict organizational discipline in terms of division and synchronization of all the tasks needed for such an event “. [10]The following is the topic of the topic but rather, “an enormous lot about organization” has become the inspiration and starting point for the design of what is eventually becoming the organization workshop. Building on this, subsequent Morais corroborated moraisean practitioners’ original finding that “organization” is not taught but “achieved” by a proper composed large group. [11]

The OW field of study in the broadest sense is social psychology , the discipline that bridges the gap between psychology and sociology. Because the OW large group approach is Activity-based [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] it stands out in a field notable for a long tradition of behaviorism -based “small group” approaches, such as group dynamics and T-group training.

“Activity-based” means that for people to learn, has a real object has to be present; as Jacinta Correia puts it: “to learn how to ride a bike, you need a bike to ride on”. [17] [18] Thus, for a large group to learn how to manage a complex [19] enterprise, it has to have a complex enterprise to manage. In the OW context, this means that a group of 150, many of whom are often engaged, are actively engaged in the production of an enterprise or service. For all the apparent, eg, on-the-job training and action learningparallels, the OW’s defining features are not only the need for a large cooperative group and the creation of (a) complex, real enterprise (s), but, principally, the position of the trainer and the way in which training messages are communicated. In OW-learning, the trainer’s role is merely subsidiary (known as “scaffolding” in activity theory). [20] In other words, it is not the trainer / instructor, but ” the object that teaches “. [21] [22] [23] [24]

In South America, it is known as the Capacitación Masiva Metodo (MCM) [25] [26] or broad-group capacitation method (LGCM). [27] [28]

International scope

The OW originated in Brazil with Morais’ 1954 Recife workshop. In the wake of the coup d’état of March 1964, Morais went into a 23-year exile in Chile, and the OW spread from there in the late sixties. After specializing in Cultural Anthropology ( Santiago Universityand in Land Reform at the ICIRA (Capacitation and Research Institute for Agrarian Reform Institute), from Morais became a consultant for international and national development institutions and NGOs. Since then, the organization workshop has become a part of agrarian reform efforts in Latin America and (community) development projects elsewhere. From Chile, the OW spread to Costa Rica, Mexico City, Panama, Colombia, El Salvador, Venezuela, Ecuador, Honduras, Peru, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Brazil, the Caribbean, Africa. [29] [30] [31] In 2015, for the first time in the UK, OW took place at ‘Marsh Farm’ urban housing Estate, Luton (near London) as part of a government supported Enterprise and Job creation project . [32][33]


During an OW

Running an enterprise (PE), originally called “primary” and “secondary” structures by de Morais and called “crew” and “team” in, for example, the SABC-televised Kwanda OWs in South Africa in the noughties. [34] [35] [36] [37] The FE is the framework set up for all organizational and learning activities before, during and after the Workshop. It is created before the workshop and remains in place after it closed. [38] The participants’ first job, in turn, is to set up a PE, usually after a period of trial and error referred to as anomie by de Morais, [39] [40]starts organizing work, subject to negotiation of a contract with the FE. Work delivered during the OW is then paid from the development fund [41] at market rates. [42]

Readings on the “Theory of Organization” (TO) [43] are an integral and compulsory part of the OW process. These readings (1 ½ hours a day for two weeks) are meant to enable members of the PE to gain a perspective on their historical, social and economic context, on the working of the market economy, on current patterns and models of organization, as well as insights in individual and collective behavior. Skills acquired include practical business organization and management skills, financial record-keeping and reporting, planning, quoting and tendering for work, vocational skills such as eg building, welding, tailoring, farming, catering or IT skills, and literacy and numeracy development. [44] [45] [46]


FAO , ILO , UNDP , Terre des hommes , Concern Worldwide , Catholic Relief Services , Hivos and Norwegian People’s Aid , Redd Barna and, recently, United Nations organizations to local and international development agencies and NGOs eg in South Africa, the Soul City Institute and the government departments such as South Africa’s Department of Social Development.

Correia considers drawing up a correct quantitative, let alone qualitative balance sheet of the OW experience has “virtually impossible” task. Based on the results of qualitative research into the OW she conducted, she tentatively “ventures some conservative estimates”: 15% of OW participants are estimated to be one of the first ones in the box of Brazil – (anno 2000, the publication year of ‘A Future’) – amounts to 9,000 enterprises.

An additional estimated 30% (equivalent to 8,000 persons) eventually find work. Counting in family members, she arrives at 27,000 persons who, in her research sample, “have drawn some economic benefit from the OW, … at an estimated unit cost of $ 16 per person”. [47] Andersson similarly estimates the impact of the 2009-10 Kwanda program in South Africa: 5,000 participants; 200,000 community members beneficiaries; 2,000,000 viewers and listeners reached per week. [48]

The OW’s “massive” claim – (re: Capacitación ‘Masiva’ in Spanish / Portuguese) [49] – is at its most visible when, as in the case of Brazil, Honduras or Costa Rica, it is run on a regional or national based on PROGER / PRONAGER or National Job & Income Generation Program [50] which, in Morais ‘mind, ought to be the OW’ s default mode: 110,946 people participated in 282 OWs in Brazil from 2000 to 2002. [51] [52] The report further quotes 3,194 accounting for enterprise start-ups and 25,077 new jobs; 22,000 participated in 104 Sao Paulo PAE (Self-Employment) Program from 1996 to 1998, resulting in 711 new enterprises, including People’s Banks. [53] [54]27,000 Hondurans and other nationals participated in 200 OWs during the 1973-1976 national PROCCARA Program in Honduras [55] [56] which led to the creation of 1,053 new enterprises, some of the larger ones still operating today (see eg Hondupalma below ). [30] [57] [58] 6,000 Cooperative (INSCOOP) workers graduated under 1979 POR / ILO / UNDP / 007 Program (Portugal). [59] The Costa Rica (2010-13) Brunca Region GERMINADORA Project [60] was decreed a “Project of Public Interest” by President Chinchilla Miranda in 2012. [61] In 2015, 411 persons participated in the Westonaria (S. Africa ) Organization Workshop, originally planned for 350.[62]

Long-term survival rates of OW-initiated enterprises- (as compared to medium-sized enterprises , where failure rates are likely to be as high as 80% in their first year of operation). [63] [64] -are exemplified by eg: 13 surviving-in 2000-Costa-Rican Cooperatives; [65] the Honduran (ex-1970s PROCCARA campaign) – palm oil growing and processing Hondupalma plants, [66] Salama [67]and Coapalma. [68] In 1999 the Costa Rican Cooperative Cooperative celebrated its 25th year of operation with a book by Barrantes. [69] Since then, Coopesilencio has added eco-tourism to its activities.


The activity-based OW approach stands out from mainstream behaviorism-based small group approaches. That is by itself a potential source of controversy in both academia and accepted field practice. [14] [70] [71]

Criticism of the OW (and, Indirectly, of de Morais) has come From Both left and right , the lathing, wary of Morais’ conceptual fashion and language “throwback to the 50s” in qui de Morais original Theory of Organization is couched , “felt that his ideas needed rejecting”. [72] Nonetheless his format was made acceptable by international organizations over the decades. [73] Van Dam [74] adds que la Latin American “bourgeois establishment” clearly saw peasant autonomy Brought about by the OW as “a threat to the Established order” And Did all in Their power to disrupt it, for example by withholding state support.

The “institutional left”, broadly defined as countries identifying, pre 1989, with the Eastern Bloc , including Cuba, never embraced of Morais’ autonomous job creation and income generation method. Revolutionary Nicaragua did allow the 1980 COPERA or “Capacitation Project for the Organization of Producers and Job Creation” OW pilot project, sponsored by the ILO and the Nicaraguan Institute for Agrarian Reform, [75] which was to become a national of Nicaraguan SIPGER (Job & Income Generation System), on the Honduran model, but the Sandinista government cut short the project on December 29, 1980, with a memorandum critical of the OW: “those Experimental Laboratories [76]to the bourgeois mindset in capitalist countries “while” surplus production serves the particular group and not the national interest “. [77] Van Dam concurs by noting that a revolutionary Sandinista government, beset by internal economic crisis, conflict with neighboring States and a Contra uprising, felt that it needed to be strongly ‘in control’ of the political process, including ‘popular participation’. [78]

A second strand of “left” criticism tends to come, one of the ideological ‘hard’ left “whose trenchant criticism of Morals derived from [this] apparent neglect of the exploitative features of the capitalist mode of production , while there is open admiration for [the OW’s] organizing method ” [79] and, on the other hand, from what could be broadly termed” liberation theology / Freirean conscientization”which of Morais encountered when working with the MST (Landless Workers) Movement in Brazil Morais (sometimes also spelled” Moraes “) – typically is criticized by this group for, among other things, being too” rigid and dogmatic “The latter’s criticisms tend to express a preference for Freirean-inspired critical pedagogy consciousness-raising and ” root cause ” -finding approaches [80] ” Morais “method focuses on” organizational “consciousness. [81]

Sobrado points to another source of resistance to the OW, which does not need to be left or right, but is rooted, instead, in the status quo, perceived to be threatened by “a sure fire way of developing the capabilities of the poor”. “. This “annoys the organizations and institutions that seem to be more cleverly disguised clientelist hidden agenda”. [82]

The anthropologist Josh Fisher’s 2010 comprehensive Genesis case study Building Consciousness: The Organization Workshop Comes to a Nicaraguan Cooperative can be counted as a criticism of the OW in that Fisher called “the first OW in Nicaragua” a failure. [83]

See also

  • Aleksei N. Leontiev
  • Clodomir Santos de Morais
  • Experiential learning
  • Zone of proximal development


  • Andersson, Gavin (2004). Unbounded Governance: A Study of the Popular Development Organization . UK: Open University.
  • Andersson, Gavin (2010). Kwanda. An example of Civic Driven Change? . South Africa: Seriti Institute.
  • Andersson, Gavin; Richards, Howard (2012). Bounded and Unbounded Organization (PDF) . AFRICANUS South Africa Vol 42, Nr 1, pp. 98-119. ISSN  0304-615X .
  • Andersson, Gavin (2013). The Activity Theory Approach (PDF) . Seriti, SA: (pre-booklaunch) chapter from Unbounded Organization: Embracing Societal Enterprise .
  • Andersson, Gavin; Richards, Howard (2015). Unbounded Organizing in Community . World Dignity University Press. ISBN  9781937570606 .
  • Araújo, Sebastão Lopes (2009). A Metodologia da Capacitação Massiva como Instrumento de inclusão social: Estudo de caso – The Large Group Capacitation Methodology as an Instrument of social inclusion: a case study (PDF) (in Portuguese). Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil: Ceará State University, Br.
  • Carmen, R; Labra, I. & I .; Davis, M. (1999). Learning from Brazil. Proceedings of the Manchester Conference of 23rd March 1998 & the Synchronous & Asynchronous Online Virtual Conferencing . Manchester University UK: Manchester Monographs # 38. ISBN  9780902252295 .
  • Carmen, Raff; Sobrado, Miguel (2000). A Future for the Excluded . London, UK: Zed Books . ISBN  9781856497022 .
  • Correia, Jacinta CB (2001). Comunicación y Capacitación en Empresas Autogestionarias surgidas by Laboratorios Organizacionales – Communication and Capacitation in the Selfmanaging Enterprises . Mexico City: Chapingo University.
  • Correia, Jainta JB (1994). Comunicação e Capacitação – Communication and Capacitation (in Portuguese). Brasilia, Br: IATTERMUND.
  • Correia, Jacinta CB (2007). Learning with Africa: The Case of Mozambique (PDF) . Goa (India): Presentation made in Jan 2006 at the ‘African Diaspora in India’ TADIA ‘meeting.
  • IICA, Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas (1977). Seminario de Analisis y Evaluación de Laboratorios Experimentales – Experimental Workshops Analysis and Evaluation Seminar (in Spanish). San Jose, Costa Rica 12-16 Dec. 1977: PRACA Training and Study Program on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development in Central American Isthmus.
  • IICA, Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas (1979). Experimental Laboratory of Capacitación en Organización – Experimental Workshop on Organizational Capacitation (in Spanish). Bogota, Colombia: SENA Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje.
  • Labra, Iván (1992). Social Psicology: Responsabilidad y Necesidad – Social Psychology. Responsibility and Need (in Spanish). LOM Ediciones . Chile. ISBN  9567369526 .
  • Labra, Isabel; Labra, Ivan (2012). The Organization Workshop Method (PDF) . Seriti, SA: Integra Terra Network Editor.
  • Labra, Iván (2014). A Critique of the Social Psychology of Small Groups & an Introduction to a Social Psychology of the Large Group (PDF) . IntegraTerra – Chile: (pre-booklaunch) Chapter I.
  • Morais, Clodomir, Santos (1979). Notes from the Organization – Notes on the theory of Organization (in Spanish). Managua, Nicaragua: UNDP, ILO-NIC / 79/010, COPERA Project.
  • Morais, Clodomir, Santos (1987). Objective conditions and subjective factors. PhD Thesis (in Spanish). Rostock GDR.
  • Silveira, Caio, M .; et al. (1997). Metodologias of Capacitação – Cefe, Gespar, Capacitação Massiva – Methods of Capacitatio – Cefe, Gespar, Capacitation Method . Rio de Janeiro: FASE.
  • Sobrado, Miguel; Stoller, Richard (September 2002). “Organizational Empowerment versus Clientelism”. Latin American Perspectives . 29 (126/5): 7-19. CiteSeerX  .
  • Sobrado, Miguel; Rojas, Juan José Herrera (2006). EUNA, ed. America Latina: crisis of Estado clientelista y la construcción de repúblicas ciudadanas – Latin America: crisis of the clientelist state and the citizen republics(PDF) (in Spanish). Costa Rica. ISBN  9977-65-281-3 .
  • Van Dam, C. (1982). EL LABORATORIO EXPERIMENTAL OF C. SANTOS DE MORAIS – UNA PEDAGOGIA BY SOCIAL ORGANIZATION – The Experimental Workshop of C. Santos de Morais – a pedagogy for social organization (PDF) . The Hague Netherlands: CESO. For ‘Experimental’ see [76]


  1. Jump up^ Sobrado inCarmen & Sobrado 2000, Ch. 2
  2. Jump up^ “or, as many other local conditions and the amount of ‘common pool resources’ that can be put on the disposal of the participants allow”: Morais inCarmen & Sobrado 2000, p. 26; Seriti: current field practice sees average numbers of around 150.
  3. Jump up^ Labra & Labra 2012, pp. 1 & 21: 850 took part in the Matzinho OW, Moz.
  4. Jump up^ see eg Sobrado inCarmen & Sobrado 2000, pp. 209-10 on the nature of and need for autonomy.
  5. Jump up^ Morais 1987, p. Also known as ‘the Inventory’ orCommon-pool resource.
  6. Jump up^ of Morais 1979.
  7. Jump up^ “Apuntes de teoría de la organización (Book, 1979)” . [] . Retrieved 2013-08-17 .
  8. Jump up^ IICA 1979, pp. 1-37.
  9. Jump up^ Cherrett, Ian (1992). Notes to a Theory of Organization . Newcastle, UK: ETC.
  10. Jump up^ Sobrado inCarmen & Sobrado 2000, p. 15
  11. Jump up^ Andersson 2010, p. 2, Slide # 5.
  12. Jump up^ de Morais 1987, p. 19-23.
  13. Jump up^ of Morais inCarmen & Sobrado 2000p.32
  14. ^ Jump up to:b Labra 1994 .
  15. Jump up^ Sobrado inCarmen & Sobrado 2000, p. 19
  16. Jump up^ Andersson 2013.
  17. Jump up^ Correia inCarmen & Sobrado 2000, p. 46
  18. Jump up^ Correia 1994.
  19. Jump up^ Because based on thedivision of labor.
  20. Jump up^ Andersson 2013, p.24 quotingVygotskyn.59.
  21. Jump up^ Sobrado inCarmen & Sobrado 2000, p. 209:The traditional relationship between trainee and instructor ceases to apply
  22. Jump up^ Andersson 2004, p.221-2 “of Morais’ antecedent thought: Objectivised Activity”.
  23. Jump up^ Correia 2007, p. 6: re: Objective Activity.
  24. Jump up^ Andersson 2013a.
  25. Jump up^ Araujo, S. A metodologia da capacitação massiva [ Large-group Capacitation Method ] (PDF) (in Portuguese).
  26. Jump up^ Sobrado & Rojas 2006, pp. 193-218.
  27. Jump up^ Carmen & Sobrado 2000, pp. xv-xix “Translating ‘Latino’ terms into English” & p.208: Capacitation and Discapacitation.
  28. Jump up^ Andersson 2004, p. 166-170 “Capacitation”.
  29. Jump up^ Carmen & Sobrado 2000, p. 51. Part III – The OW in Practice.
  30. ^ Jump up to:b Labra Labra & 2012 , p. 3.
  31. Jump up^ by Morais, C. Santos (1987). Botswana, a workshop on production organization . Rome, Italy: FAO FFHC – Freedom from Hunger Campaign – IDEAS & ACTION No. 175 (1987/4). pp. 8-17.
  32. Jump up^ Ivan Labra, 2016 The Organization Workshop at Marsh Farm, Luton, UK. Performance Report Integraterra – the Network of OW Practitioners.
  33. Jump up^ Imagine, 2016 Marsh Farm Organization Workshop Evaluation Report
  34. Jump up^ Ramafoko, Lebo; Andersson, Gavin; Weiner, Renay (September 2012). “Reality Television for Community Development – The Kwanda Initiative in South Africa” . Glocal Times . 17/18 (17/18).
  35. Jump up^ Labra & Labra 2012, p. 6.
  36. Jump up^ Andersson 2010, p. 2, Slide # 4.
  37. Jump up^ In South Africa, the OW was applied by, among others, theSeriti Institute,Soul City Instituteand the South African GovernmentDepartment of Social Development.
  38. Jump up^ I. & I. Labra inCarmen, Labra & Davis 1999p 51-52
  39. Jump up^ de Morais 1987, p. 119.
  40. Jump up^ Van Dam 1982, p. 28.
  41. Jump up^ Correia 2007, p. 9.
  42. Jump up^ Labra, Isabel; Labra, Ivan (2008). “Der Organisationsworkshop-Ansatz: eine Großgruppen Intervention für die Arbeit mit Basisgruppen” [The Organization Workshop Approach to Work: A Large Group Intervention with Base Groups]. In Königswieser, Roswita; Keil, Marion. Das Feuer großer Gruppen [ The fire of large groups ] (in German). Klett-Cotta. pp. 196-208. ISBN  9783791030432 .
  43. Jump up^ Labra & Labra 2012, p. 10.4.
  44. Jump up^ I. & I. Labra inCarmen & Sobrado 2000, pp. 118-120
  45. Jump up^ Andersson 2004, pp. 135-142.
  46. Jump up^ Labra & Labra 2012.
  47. Jump up^ Correia inCarmen & Sobrado 2000, pp. 199-200
  48. Jump up^ Andersson 2010, p. 4 slide # 3.
  49. Jump up^ Sidney, Abel, of Souza (February 2006). “A Metodologia da Capacitação Massiva:” A Massaceaccation Methodology: An Alternative to Job and Income Generation “. Revista Espaço Acadêmico (in Portuguese). 57 .
  50. Jump up^ Nacif Vera MS Programa Nacional de Generación de Empleo y Renta PRONAGER [ National Program for Job and Income Generation ] (PDF)(in Portuguese). Brazil: Departamento Cultural.
  51. Jump up^ “PRODUZIR report” (PDF) (in Portuguese). FAO. p. 7.
  52. Jump up^ PRODUZIR Amazônia
  53. Jump up^ Auto-Emprego Programa – PAE (PDF) (in Portuguese). DIEESE. 2002. p. 3.
  54. Jump up^ Correia inCarmen & Sobrado 2000, p188 (Ch.18) and p175-7
  55. Jump up^ Erazo, Benjamin; Fajardo, Allan (1980). El Proceso de Colectivización del Agro Hondureño [ The collectivization process of the Honduran agrarian area ] (in Spanish). Mexico: Centro de Estudios Superiores Tercer Milenio – CESTEM No. 1.– quoted byde Morais 1987, p. 137 n.245
  56. Jump up^ Instituto Nacional Agrario-National Agrarian Institute (1974). Programa de Capacitación Campesina para la Reforma Agraria [ Campesino Capacitation Program for Agrarian Reform ] (in Spanish). Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Government Printer.
  57. Jump up^ Silveira 1997.
  58. Jump up^ Correia 2001, p. 147.
  59. Jump up^ Correia inCarmen & Sobrado 2000, p 152 (c.15) & 174
  60. Jump up^ Germinadora Project – Spanish
  61. Jump up^ “Presidential Decree # 37771 MP-MBSF QLD” (PDF) . The Gaceta . 236 : 3. 6 December 2012.
  62. Jump up^ Westonaria Organization Workshop”WOW” p. 19.
  63. Jump up^ Correia inCarmen & Sobrado 2000, p. 201 quotes to 90%Brazilian Micro Enterprise Support Service (SEBRAE)
  64. Jump up^ Sobrado & Stoller 2002quote: “This creates the conditions for the failure of microenterprises (the failure rate in the first year is over 80 percent) and deepens the desperation of participants.”
  65. Jump up^ Sobrado inCarmen & Sobrado 2000, p. 56
  66. Jump up^ Hondupalma celebrated its30th yearof operation in 2012
  67. Jump up^ Oil Palm Producers in Honduras Salama p3
  68. Jump up^ “Coapalma abona L15 millones in Banadesa – Coapalma country 15m lempiras to Bandesa” . The Prensa . 3 January 2013.
  69. Jump up^ Barrantes C., Victor J. (1998). The construction of a sueño: Coopesilencio, 25 años después . Costa Rica: EUNA.
  70. Jump up^ Andersson 2004, p.60, p.249, p.262-9 “Small group Lewinian Social Psychology”.
  71. Jump up^ See also Andersson (2013) on Lewin and small group “bounded” approach inexternal linksbelow.
  72. Jump up^ Carmen & Sobrado 2000, p. 21.
  73. Jump up^ Andersson 2004, p. 130.
  74. Jump up^ Van Dam 1982, p. 61.
  75. Jump up^ Bornstein, CT (1982). A Reforma Agraria in Nicaragua [ Agrarian Reform in Nicaragua ]. São Paulo , Brazil: Brasiliense. , quoted inde Morais 1987, p. 138.
  76. ^ Jump up to:b Van Dam was translated into Dutch in 1983 re: Het Experimental Laboratorium ISBN  9064432910 . As for Experimental / Experimental : “LE / EW” – (or “EWTO” – Experimental Workshop on the Theory of Organization) – was the beginning, and afterwards more recently abandoned for the LO / OW see, eg Correia 2001 , p. 144, Labra & Labra 2012 , p. 2 and Van Dam 1982 , pp. 69-72 5.6: Nature and reason for the artificial aspect of the Experimental Workshop.
  77. Jump up^ “Puntos de consideracion sobre la implementacion de Laboratorios Experimentales” [Spanish for the Implementation of Experimental Laboratories.
  78. Jump up^ Van Dam 1982, p. 58.
  79. Jump up^ Andersson 2004, p. 148. Andersson singles out Kate Truscott’s vocal criticism of Morais at a SACNET – (Southern Africa Cooperative Network) – Seminar held in Harare in 1990.
  80. Jump up^ Thomaz, Fernanda (2009). A ORGANIZAÇÃO DO TRABALHO CAMPONÊS NA VISÃO OF CLODOMIR SANTOS DE MORAIS – The Organization of rural labor according to Clodomir Santos de Morais(PDF) (in Portuguese). Sao Paulo, Brazil: XIXth Meeting of the Agrarian Geography group. pp. 1-16.
  81. Jump up^ Carmen & Sobrado 2000, [organizational] which includes ‘critical’ consciousness re: Ch. 4 -From Freire to Clodomir Santos de Morais: from Critical to Organizational Consciousness.
  82. Jump up^ Sobrado inCarmen & Sobrado 2000, p. 21
  83. Jump up^ Fisher, Josh (2010). “Building Consciousness: The Organization Workshop Comes to a Nicaraguan Cooperative”. Anthropology of Work Review . 31 (10): 71. doi : 10.1111 / j.1548-1417.2010.01043.x .

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