Temporary work

Temporary work or temporary employment (also called employment) refers to an employment situation where the working arrangement is limited to a certain period of time based on the needs of the employing organization. Temporary employees are sometimes called “contractual”, “seasonal”, “interim”, “casual staff”, “outsourcing”, “freelance”; the word may be shortened to “time”. In some instances, temporary, highly skilled professionals (particularly in the white-collar worker fields, such as law , engineering , and accounting ) refer to themselves as consultants .

Temporary work is different from Secondment , qui is the assignment of a member of one organization to Reviews another organization for a temporary period, and Where the employee Typically responsibility for fuels Their salary and other employment rights from Their primary organizational purpose They Work étroitement dans le other organization to provide training and the sharing of experience.

Temporary workers may work full-time or part-time depending on the individual situation. In some instances, temporary workers receive benefits , such as health insurance , but usually benefits only as a permanent employee . Not all temporary employees find jobs through a temporary employment agency . With the rise of the Internet and ‘gig economy’, many workers are now finding short-term jobs through freelance marketplaces: a situation that is a global market for work [1] .

temporary work agency , temp agency or temporary staffing firm finds and retains workers. Other companies, in need of short-term workers, contract with the temporary work agency to send temporary workers , golden time , we assignments to Work at the other companies. Temporary employees are also used to work with cyclical nature, requiring frequent adjustments to staffing levels.

History

Trends in Temporary Work (US) : Source: DH Author, Outsourcing at Will: The Contribution of Dismissal Doctrine to the Growth of Employment Outsourcing

The staffing industry in the United States began after World War II with small agencies in urban areas employing housewives for part-time work as office workers. Over the years, the advantages of having a job in the United States by 2000. [2]

There has been a great paradigm shift since the 1940s in the way of business utilize the temporary worker. Throughout the Fordist era, temporary workers made a marginal proportion of the total labor force in North America . Typically, temporary workers Were white women in pink collar , clerical positions Who Provided companies with a stop-gap solution for permanent workers Who needed a leave of absence, When on vacation or in illness. [3] In contrast, in the post-Fordist period, caractérisée by neoliberalism , deindustrialization and the dismantling of thewelfare state , these understandings of temporary labor began to shift. [4] In this paradigm , the idea of ​​the temporary worker has become a permanent normative employment alternative to permanent work. [5]

Therefore, temporary workers no longer represent a substitute for permanent workers on a permanent basis, but precarious positions have become precarious in the company of products. In the context of today’s temporary labor force, both people and positions have become temporary, and temporary agencies use the temporary worker in a systematic and planned, as opposed to impromptu manner. [3]

Post-Fordism

As the market began to transform from Fordism to a post-Order regime of capital accumulation , the social regulation of labor markets and the very nature of work-to-shift. [6] This transformation has-been caractérisée by year economic restructuring That Emphasized flexibility Within spaces of work, labor markets , employment relationships, wages and benefits . Most governments in Western Europe started to deregulate temporary work. [7] And indeed, global processes of neoliberalismand market rule contributor greatly to this increasing pressure on local labor markets towards flexibility. [8]This Greater flexibility Within labor markets is significant at the global level, PARTICULARLY Within OECD countries and liberal market economies (see liberal market economy ).

The temporary labor industry is worth over € 157 billion per year, and the largest agencies are spread across over 60 nations. The largest temporary agencies are most profitable in emerging economies of the Global North , and they have undergone market liberalization , deregulation and (re) regulation. [9]

The desire to market flexible, adaptable temporary workers has become a driving, monetary oriented objective of the temporary work industry. This HAS Caused individual agencies to adopt practices That focus is competition with other firms, That Promote ” try before you buy ” practices and That maximize Their Ability to Produce a product: the temporary worker. Through this process, the ideal worker has become largely imagined, produced and marketed by temporary agencies. [10]

Agencies

The role of a customer is a third party between customer and employee. This third party handles remuneration, work scheduling, complaints, taxes, etc. created by the relationship between a customer and a customer employee. Client firms request the type of job that is to be done, and the skills required to do it. Client firms can also complete an assignment and are able to file a complaint about the temp. [11] [12] Work schedules are determined by assignment, which is determined by the agency and can be used for an indeterminate period of time. [11]Because the assignments are temporary, there is little incentive to provide benefits and the pay is low in situations where there is a lot of labor flexibility. (Nurses are currently not a shortage). [11] [12] [13] Workers can not accept an assignment but it is not possible to assign an assignment to an agency. [11]

Whether the work comes through an independent gig economy or when a temporary employee [14]agrees to an assignment, they receive instructions pertaining to the job. The agency also provides information on correct work attracts, work hours, wages, and whom to report to. If they accepted the job, they may call an agency representative for clarification. If they choose not to continue on the basis of these discrepancies, they will most likely lose their chances and opportunities at other job opportunities. However, some agencies guarantee an employee to a certain number of hours pay if, the term of temporary employee arrives, there is no work or the work is not described. Most agencies do not require an employee to continue working in the workplace.[15]

temporary work agency may have a standard set of tests to judge the competence of the secretarial or clerical skills of an applicant. An applicant is based on their scores on these tests, and is placed on a database. Companies or individuals looking to hire someone who are interested in the business. A temporary employee is then found in the database and is contacted to see if they would be interested in taking the assignment. [15]

It is up to the temporary employee to keep in touch with the agency when not currently working on an assignment; They are ready to go to work and they are ready to go to work. A temp agency employee is the exclusive employee of the agency, not of the company in which they are placed (even subject to legal dispute). The term employee is bound by the rules and regulations of the client firm, even if they contrast with those of the company in which they are placed.

Benefits for client firms

There are a number of reasons as to why a firm utilizes temp agencies. They provide employers a way to add workers to a short term increase in the workforce. Using a business timer. A worker’s competency and value can be determined with the inflexibility of hiring a new person and see how they work out. Utilizing temp workers can also be used to pay benefits and the employees of a regular employees. A firm could also use an illegal settlement. The role of workers in the workplace can also be reduced Additionally, they are less likely to be sue over mistreatment,[11] [12] [13] [16]

Growth of temporary staffing

Temp agencies are a growing part of industrial economies. From 1961-1971 the number of employees increased by 16 percent. Temporary staffing industry payrolls increased by 166 percent from 1971 to 1981, and 206 percent from 1981 to 1991, and 278 percent from 1991 to 1999. The temporary staffing sector accounted for 1 out of 12 new jobs in the 90’s. [16] In 1996, $ 105 billion, worldwide, in staffing agency revenues. By 2008, $ 300 billion was generated, worldwide, in revenue for staffing agencies. [17] The Temporary Staffing Industry accounts for 16% of job growth in the US since the great recession ended, even though it only accounts for 2% of all-farm jobs. [18]This growth has occurred for a number of reasons. Demand in temporary employment can be predominantly applied to employers and employees [13] [19] A large driver of demand in the European labor market. Previously, temporary employment agencies were considered quasi-legal entities. This reputation shied potential customer employers away. However, in the later half of the 20th century, there would be a shift predominated by legal protections and closer relationships with primary employers. This combination with the tendency for growth of TSI in countries of the world is one of the most important of these regulations. [19] [20]

Abuse in the temporary staffing industry

Staffing agencies are prone to improper behavior just like any other employer. [11] [17] There are some cases of that which have been created and reinforced. [12]

Time has been told to be a “guest” and not a worker, which can lead to worker exploitation. One ramification is that time, and some of them are encouraged to make themselves “sexually available”. quote needed ]

An additional branching of temp workers “guest” is visually identifiable on ID cards, in different colored uniforms, as well as the encouragement of more “provocative dress”. [12] Their “guest” status often means that they are unable to access the workplace and are not included in meetings of the client. [11] [12] [21]

This is all in a nutshell, where, often enough, not only is it disqualified? . [11] Since a client is not a complaining employee, an assignment; There is an incentive for agencies to find employees who are willing to go along with the conditions for client firms, as opposed to severing with firms that routinely violate the law. [11]

Occupational safety and health

Temporary workers are at a high risk of being injured or killed on the job. In the US, 829 fatal injuries (17% of all occupational fatalities) occurred among contract workers in 2015. [22] Studies have also shown a higher burden of non-fatal injuries and injuries compared to those in standard employment arrangements. . [23] [24] There are many factors contributing to the high rates of injuries and illnesses among temporary workers. They are often inexperienced and assigned to hazardous jobs and tasks, [25] [24] [26] [27] may be reluctant to[26] and they may lack basic knowledge and skills to protect themselves from workplace hazards. [28] According to a joint guidance document released by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), both staffing agencies and host employers (ie, the clients of staffing agencies) are responsible providing and maintaining a safe and healthy work environment. [29]Collaborative and interdisciplinary (eg, epidemiology, occupational psychology, organizational science, economics, law, management, sociology, occupational health and safety) research and intervention efforts are needed to protect and promote occupational health and safety. [30]

Pros and cons

Pros

  • Easy hire : Those meeting the requirements for the type of work are usually guaranteed. In this sense, it could be argued that it would be easier to find work as a temporary worker. Also, in some cases, interviewees and interviewers [31]
  • Potential for flexible hours
  • There is an opportunity to gain experience-companies are all unique, so the worker will be exposed to a plethora of different situations and office procedures [31]
  • There are companies that do not hire internally and use these staffing services only. They are a good gateway to get a job with a certain company.
  • Try Before You Buy-Temporary staff a business to ‘TRY’ a worker as part of their team and to confirm that they are the perfect fit before taking them on board long-term, if needed.

Cons

Workers, scholars, union organizers and activists have identified many others in the past. [32] These include:

  • Lack of control over working hours and the potential for immediate termination for refusing an assigned schedule.
  • Positions are often with high turnover rates. They suggest that they take advantage of the time when they expect to be able to work, and that they allow them to avoid costs. [33]
  • Lack of reference as many employers of experienced job positions.
  • In the United States, the gradual replacement of workers by workers in the millions of workers employed in low-paid temporary jobs. [2]
  • Typically, temporary workers earn roughly a third of a permanent counterpart, receive few or no benefits and become full-time employees from their temporary positions. [31]
  • Many do not report their income to the IRS, resulting in an estimated $ 214.6 billion in the United States alone of unreported income. [34] This can result in fine or jail time.

Legal issues

Scholars have argued that neoliberal policies have been promulgated in the erosion of the standard employment relationship. This precarious new model of employment has greatly reduced the worker’s ability to negotiate and, in particular, with the introduction of advanced technology (that can easily replace the worker), reduced the temp’s bargaining power. [35] Internet of Things -based companies Such As Uber -have come into conflict with workers and autorités for circumventing labor and social security obligations. [36] [37] It has been suggested that labor regulationsin North America do not worry about the labor market insecurities and the precarious nature of temporary labor. In many cases, legislation has little to acknowledge or adapt to the growth of non-standard employment in Canada. [38]

In the European Union , the Temporary Agency of the European Labor Office and the Member States. [39]

See also

  • Contingent work
  • Workforce contingent
  • Day labor
  • Employment agency
  • Labor hire
  • Labor market flexibility
  • Outsourcing
  • permatemp
  • recruitment
  • Up or out
  • Zero-hour contract

References

  1. Jump up^ Graham, Mark; Hjorth, Isis; Lehdonvirta, Vili (2017-03-16). “Digital labor and development: the impacts of global digital labor platforms and the economy on labor livelihoods” . Transfer: European Review of Labor and Research . doi : 10.1177 / 1024258916687250 .
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  5. Jump up^ Vosco, LF (2000). Temporary work: the gendered rise of a precarious employment relationship . Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  6. Jump up^ Peck, Jamie (1996). Workplace: the social regulation of labor markets . New York: Guilford Press.
  7. Jump up^ Vlandas, Tim (2013). The Politics of Temporary Work Deregulation in Europe . Politics & Society.
  8. Jump up^ Harvey, David (2005). A brief history of neoliberalism . Oxford University Press.
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  11. ^ Jump up to:i Rogers, Jackie (1997). ” ” Hey, Why Do not You Wear a Skirt Shorter? “: Structural Vulnerability and the Organization of Temporary Clerical Sexual Harassment in Employment. ” . ” Gender and Society(11.2): 215-237.
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  20. Jump up^ Shire ,, Karen (2009). “Temporary Work in Coordinated Market Economies: Evidence from Front-Line Service Workplaces”. Industrial and Labor Relations . 62 (4): 602-617.
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  22. Jump up^ https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/cfoi_09172015.pdf
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  24. ^ Jump up to:b Benavides, FG; Benach, J .; Muntaner, C .; Delclos, GL; Catot, N .; Amable, M. (2006-06-01). “Associations between temporary employment and occupational injury: what are the mechanisms?” . Occupational and Environmental Medicine . 63 (6): 416-421. doi : 10.1136 / oem.2005.022301 . ISSN  1351-0711 . PMC  2078100  . PMID  16497853 .
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  27. Jump up^ Breslin, FC; Smith, P. (2006-01-01). “Trial by fire: a multivariate examination of the relationship between tenure and work injuries” . Occupational and Environmental Medicine . 63 (1): 27-32. doi : 10.1136 / oem.2005.021006 . ISSN  1351-0711 . PMC  2078031  . PMID  16361402 .
  28. Jump up^ Cummings, Kristin J .; Kreiss, Kathleen (2008-01-30). “Contingent Workers and Contingent Health: Risks of a Modern Economy” . JAMA . 299 (4): 448-450. doi : 10.1001 / jama.299.4.448 . ISSN  0098-7484 .
  29. Jump up^ “CDC – NIOSH Publications and Products – Recommended Practices, Protecting Temporary Workers (2014-139)” . www.cdc.gov . Retrieved 2017-03-08 .
  30. Jump up^ Howard, John (2017-01-01). “Nonstandard work arrangements and worker health and safety” . American Journal of Industrial Medicine . 60(1): 1-10. doi : 10.1002 / ajim.22669 . ISSN  1097-0274 .
  31. ^ Jump up to:c Manero, Conney. “The Pros and Cons of Temporary Work” .
  32. Jump up^ Graham Mark and Joe Shaw (July 10, 2017). “Towards a Fairer Gig Economy” . meatspacepress.org . Meatspace Press.
  33. Jump up^ Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Manufacturing Plants’ Use of Temporary Workers: An Analysis Using Census Micro Data , February 2010
  34. Jump up^ McDermott, Jennifer (3 September 2017). “Side hustle and tax evasion: The telling statistics” . finder.com . Retrieved 21 September 2017 .
  35. Jump up^ Rurup, Bert (1997). Work of the future: Global Perspectives . Australia: Allen & Unwin Publishing. pp. Chapter 6.
  36. Jump up^ James Bloodworth (2016-10-31). “Uber’s vision of a ‘gig economy’ does not only exploit workers – it harms us all” . International Business Times.
  37. Jump up^ Alex Rosenblatt (2016-11-17). “What Motivates Gig Economy Workers” . Harvard Business Review.
  38. Jump up^ Vosco, L (2004). Challenging the market: the struggle to regulate work and income . Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press. pp. Chapter 1.
  39. Jump up^ Directive 2008/104 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on temporary agency work,2008/104 / EC.

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