Employment discrimination

Employment discrimination is a form of discrimination based on race , gender , religion , national origin , physical or mental disability , age , sexual orientation , and gender identity by employers. Earnings differentials or occupational differentiation is not in favor of self-evidence of employment discrimination. Discrimination can be intended and involve disparate treatment of a group or unintended, yet create disparate impact for a group.


In neoclassical economics theory, labor market discrimination is defined as the different treatment of two Equally qualified Individuals one account of Their gender , race , [1] age , disability , religion , etc. Discrimination is harmful since it affects the economic outcomes of Equally productive workers Directly and Indirectly through feedback effects. [2] Darity and Mason [1998] summarize que la standard approach used in Identifying employment discrimination is to isolate group productivity differences ( education, work experience). Differences in outcomes (such as earnings, job placement) that may be assigned to discriminatory treatment. [3]

In the non-neoclassical view, discrimination is the main source of inequality in the labor market and is seen in the gender and racial earnings disparity in the US [3] Non-neoclassical economists define neoclassical economists. For example, the feminist economist Deborah Figart [1997] defines labor market discrimination as “a multi-dimensional interaction of economic, social, political, and cultural forces in both the workplace and the family. status “. [4] That is, discrimination is not only measurable, but also results in unquantifiable consequences. It is important to note that the process is important as the outcomes. [4]Furthermore, gender norms are embedded in labor markets and shape employ preferences as well worker preferences; therefore, it is not easy to separate discrimination from productivity-related inequality. [5]

United States Civil Rights Act of 1964 , the movement towards equality has slowed down after the mid-1970s, especially in racial terms. [3] [6] The key issue in the debate on employment discrimination is the persistence of discrimination, namely, why discrimination persists in a capitalist economy. [3]



Gender earnings gap or the concentration of men and women workers in different occupations or industries of and is not evidence of discrimination. [2] Therefore, empirical studies seek to identify the extent to which they are differentiated. Many studies find that qualification differences do not explain more than a portion of the earnings differences. The portion of the earnings gap that can not be explained by discrimination. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition procedure is one of the most important parts of the gender wage differentials. [2] [3]

Another type of statistical evidence of discrimination is gathered by focusing on homogeneous groups. This approach has the advantage of studying economic outcomes of groups with very similar qualifications. [2]

A 2017 study found that women receive a lower rate of pay. However, it is difficult to determine the extent to which this is the result of racial discrimination. [7]

In a well-known longitudinal study, the University of Michigan Law School (USA) graduates were surveyed between 1987 and 1993, and later between 1994 and 2000 to measure changes in the wage gap. [8] The group was intentionally chosen to have very similar characteristics. Although the gap in earnings between men and women was very small after graduation, it widened in 15 years to the point that women earned 60 percent of what men earned. Even after factoring in women’s choice of working for less, and worker qualifications and other factors, such as grades in law school discrimination.

Other studies on the subject of graduate studies in the United States , such as Harvard MBAs in the United States. One such study focused on gender differences in 1985 between the college graduates . [9] The graduates were chosen from one or two years earlier. The researchers took the college major, the GPA (grade point average) and the educational institution. Yet, even after these factors were accounted for, there remained a 10-15 percent pay gap based on gender. Another study based on a 1993 survey of college graduates had similar results for black and white women.[10] Both non-Hispanic men and women compared to non-Hispanic men. However, the results of earnings were mixed for Hispanic and Asian women when their earnings were compared to white, non-Hispanic men. A 2006 study looked at Harvard graduates. [11] GPA, SAT scores and college major, and the results of work and current occupation. The results showed 30 percent of the wage gap was unexplained. Therefore, the results of discrimination, the results of the studies signal discrimination, even if these women are highly educated. Human capitalists argue that measurement and data problems contribute to this unexplained gap. [8] [9] [10] [11]

One very recent example of employment discrimination among female Chief Financial Officers (CFOs) in the US. Although 62% of accountants and auditors are women, they are only 9% when it comes to the CFO post. According to the research not only are they underrepresented in the profession, but they are also underpaid, 16% less on average. [12]

From experiments

Audit (or matched pairs) studies are done to examine hiring discrimination. In order to examine racial discrimination, the Urban Institute relies on a matched peers study. [13] They studied the employment outcomes for Hispanic , white and black men who were between 19-25 in the early 1990s. The job position was entry-level. Thus, they matched peers of black and white men and peers of Hispanic and non-Hispanic men as testers. The testers applied for the advertised openings for the new positions. All of the testers were given fabricated abstractswhere all characteristics but their race / ethnicity was nearly identical. In addition, they went through training sessions for interviews. If both people in the peer were offered the job or both were rejected, the conclusion was there was no discrimination. However, if they have been given the job, then they have ended there was discrimination. The Institute found that it was less likely that while the Hispanic has been discriminated.

The Fair Employment Council of Greater Washington , Inc. was tested by peer testers by race. [14] The study found that the white female testers had higher chances of call back for interviewsand job offers compared to black female testers. The percentage for interviews was 10 percent more for the white testers. Among those interviewed, 50 percent were offered the job, while only 11 percent were offered. The white testers were also offered for the same job in which the same job was also offered to the black testers. The pay difference was 15 cents per hour for the white candidates. Further, black women were “steered” to lower level jobs, while white women were unadvertised.

A matched-peers study of homogeneous group audit was done in the restaurants in Philadelphia , United States. [15] Nicknamecandidates handed over their resumes to a random worker in the restaurants for the rest to the manager, which removed the effect of first impression on the employer. Also, the resumes were written in a three-level scale based on the qualifications of the pseudo-applicants and resumes for each qualification level. The results showed that male applicants were favored significantly. Men had higher interview callbacks or job offers. In addition, men did better in high-cost restaurants compared to low-pay ones. In the low-price restaurants, the woman was rejected 29 percent of the time. There were no such cases where a man did not get the job. In the high-priced restaurants, when the man got an offer, the woman was rejected 43 percent of the time. The same pattern was reported for the interviews. At the high-priced restaurants, women had 40 percent chance of being interviewed and 50 percent less chance of receiving the job. Therefore, based on this study, it is correct to conclude discrimination in the same job. The high-priced restaurants are highertips for its workers compared to those with low prices. [2] [3]

Another experiment is the study of the effect of “blind” symphony orchestra auditions by Goldin and Rouse. [16] In this case, the gender of the candidate was not known by the election committee because the auditions were done behind a curtain. Thus, only the skills were considered. As a result, the number of women accepted after “blind” auditions from 5 percent in 1970 to 25 percent in 1996 in the top five symphony orchestrasin the US In other words, a change occurred. This study tests for discrimination directly. The discovery of the musicians before the adoption of the screen on identity. However, this discriminatory practice has been eliminated after the adoption and only the qualifications of the individuals have been taken into account. [2] [3]

Darity and Mason [1998] summarize results of discriminatory behavior observed in other countries on the basis of “correspondence tests”. [3] In this type of testing, the researchers design fabricated abstracts that signal the ethnicity of the pseudo applicants via the names of the resumes and send these letters to the employers. However, the qualifications written in the resumes are comparable. In England , Afro-American , Indian or Pakistani names were not called back for Anglo-Saxon interviews but were called. [17] In Australian audits, Greek or Vietnamesenames had the same result; Anglo-Saxons were favored. [17] According to the experiment done in the University of Michigan ‘s study, [18] strikingly, even the “skin shade” and physical features of the patients had negative effects on the skin.

From short cases

Darity and Mason [1998] summarize the short cases on discrimination, in which they were found guilty and huge awards were rewarded for plaintiffs . They argue that such cases establish the existence of discrimination. [3]The plaintiffs were women or non-whites (St. Petersburg Times, 1997, Inter Press Service, 1996, The Chicago Tribune, 1997, The New York Times, 1993, the Christian Science Monitor, 1983, Los Angeles Times, 1996). Some examples are the following: In 1997, the allegations for the Publix Super Markets were “gender biases in the job training, promotion, tenure and layoff policies; wage discrimination; occupational segregation; hostile work environment “(St. Petersburg Times, 1997, pp. 77). In 1996, allegations for Texaco were “racially discriminatory hiring, promotion and salary policies” (Inter Press Service, 1996, The Chicago Tribune, 1997, pp. 77). The six black workers, who were the plaintiffs, gave the taped comments of the white corporate officials (Inter Press Service, 1996, The Chicago Tribune, 1997). In 1983, The General Motors Corporation was sued for both sexes and racial discrimination (The Christian Science Monitor, 1983). In 1993, the Shoney International was accused of “racial bias in promotion, tenure, and layoff policies; wage discrimination; hostile work environment (The New York Times, 1993, pp. 77) “. The victims were awarded $ 105 million (The New York Times, 1993). In 1996, the plaintiffs of the Pitney Bowes, Inc. case were awarded $ 11.1 million (Los Angeles Times, 1996).

Neoclassical explanations

Neoclassical labor economists explain the existence and persistence of discrimination on the basis of discrimination and statistical discrimination. While overcrowding model moves away from neoclassical theory, the institutionalmodels are non-neoclassical. [2]

Tastes for discrimination

The Nobel Prize- winning economist Gary Becker claimed the markets punish the companies that discriminate because it is costly. His argument is as following: [19]

The profitability of the company is less important, and the loss is “directly proportional to how much the decision was based on prejudice, rather than on merit.” Indeed, choosing a worker with lower performance (in comparison to salary) causes proportional losses to the difference in performance. Similarly, the customers who discriminate against certain types of workers in the average. [19]

If a company discriminates, it typically loses profitability and market share to the companies that do not discriminate, unless the state limits free competition protects the discriminators. [20]

However, there is a counter-argument against Becker’s claim. As Becker conceptualized, discrimination is the problem of discrimination with a specific group, originally formulated to explain employment discrimination based on race. The theory is based on the idea that the markets punish the discriminator in the long run of discrimination is costly in the long run for the discriminator. There are three types of discrimination, namely: employ, employee and customer. [2] [3] [6] [21]

In the first one, the employer has a taste for discrimination and is willing to pay more for hiring men instead of women. Thus, the non-pecuniary cost and additional cost of discrimination in dollar terms; the full cost of employment is the wage plus this additional cost of discrimination. For the total cost of men and women to be equal, women are paid less than men. In the second type, the male employees have a distaste for working with women employees. Because of the non-pecuniary cost, they must be paid more than women. In the third type, the customers have a distaste for being served by women employees. Therefore, the customersare willing to pay for a fee for service by women. The as-if non-pecuniary cost is associated with purchasing goods or services from women. [2] [21]

Becker’s theory states that discrimination can not exist in the long run because it is costly. However, discrimination seems to persist in the long run; it was only after the Civil Rights Act , as it was seen in the economic history. [3] [6] [21] Regardless, it is argued that Becker’s theory holds for occupational segregation. For instance, men are more likely to work as truck drivers, or the female customers are more likely to be served by women under the salespersons because of preferences. However, this segregation can not explain the wage differentials. In other words, occupational segregationDifferentiation between different groups of differentiating agents is not possible. Thus, customer discrimination theory fails to explain the combination of employment segregation and the wage differentials. However, the data points out the jobs associated with the women of lower pay. [3]

Statistical discrimination

Main article: Statistical discrimination (economics)

Edmund Phelps [1972] introduced the assumption of uncertainty in hiring decisions. [22] When they make a decision, they may vote for the qualifications of the applicants, they may not be more stable. Thus, they are more likely to hire the male applicants over the females, if they believe on average are more productive and more stable. This general view affects the decision to use the individual on the basis of information on the group.

Blau et al. [2010] point out the harmful consequences of discrimination via feedback effects of the initial cause of discrimination . The non-neoclassical insight that is not part of the statistical discrimination sheds light onto uncertainty. If a woman is given less firm-specific training and is assigned to lower-paid jobs, then this woman is more likely to quit her job, fulfilling the expectations, thus to reinforce group averages held by employers. However, if the employer invests a lot on her, the chance that she will stay is higher. [2]

Non-neoclassical approach

Overcrowding model

This non-neoclassical model was first developed by Bergmann. [23] According to the model, the outcome of the occupational segregation is wage differentials between two genders. The reasons for segregation may be socialization, individual decisions, or labor market discrimination. Wage differentials occur when the job opportunities or demand for the female-dominated sector is less than the supply of women. According to the evidence, in general female dominated jobs pay less than male dominated jobs. The pay is low because of the women who choose dominated jobs or they do not have other opportunities.

When there is no discrimination in the market and both are equally productive, wages are the same regardless of the type of job, or jobs. Assume the equilibrium wages in job F is higher than that of the M jobs. Intuitively, the workers in the lower paying job will transfer to the other sector. This movement ceases only when the wages in two sectors are equal. Therefore, when the market is free of discrimination, wages are the same for different types of jobs, provided that is sufficient time for adjustment and attractiveness of each job is the same.

When there is discrimination in the jobs against women workers, or when women prefer the jobs, economic outcomes change. When there is a limit of available M jobs, its supply decreases; thus, wages of the M jobs increase. Because women can not enter the jobs or they choose the F jobs, they “crowd” into F jobs. Consequently, higher supply of F jobs decreases its wage rates. Briefly, segregation causes the gender wage differentials regardless of the equal skills.

Another striking point of overcrowding model is productivity. Since women in the jobs cost less, it is rational to substitute labor for capital. On the contrary, it is rational to substitute capital for labor in the M jobs. Therefore, wage differentials and causes Overcrowding It makes women less productive ALTHOUGH They Were Potentially Equally productive initially. [2]

The question of why women prefer working in female-dominated sectors is an important one. Some advocate this choice stems from inherently different talents or preferences; some insist on the differences in socialization and the division of labor in the household ; Some believe it is because of discrimination in some occupations. [2]

Institutional models

Institutional models of discrimination are not as flexible as it is explained in the competitive models. Rigidities are seen in the institutional arrangements or in monopoly power. Race and gender differences overlap with labor market institutions. Women occupy certain jobs as versus men. [24] However, institutional models do not explain discrimination and describe how labor markets work with disadvantage women and blacks. Thus, institutional models do not subscribe to the neoclassical definition of discrimination. [25]

The internal labor market

The firms hire workers outside or use internal workforce based worker is progress, qui plays a role in climbing the promotional ladder. Big firms usually put the workers into groups. When employers think about their productivity, statistical discrimination may occur. Consequently, workers might be segregated based on gender and race. [26]

Primary and secondary jobs

Peter Doeringer and Michael Piore [1971] established the dual labor market model. [26] In this model, high-level, high-level, high-level, high-end jobs and high-term attachment. On the contrary, lower wages, less promotion and higher labor turnover. The dual labor market model combined with gender discrimination suggests that men dominate the primary jobs and that women are over-represented in the secondary jobs. [2]

The difference between primary and secondary jobs also creates productivity differences, such as different levels of on-the-job training . Moreover, women have lower incentives for stability. [26]

Moreover, lack of informal networking from male colleagues, visualizing women in the female dominated jobs and lack of encouragement to affect the economic outcomes for women. They are subject to an unintentional institutional discrimination which deals with their productivity, promotion and earnings negatively. [2]

The under-representation of women in top-level management may be explained by the “pipeline” argument which states that they are newcomers and it takes time to move toward the upper levels. The other argument is about barriers that prevent women from advance positions. However, some of these barriers are non-discriminatory. Work and family conflicts are an example of why there are fewer women in the top corporate positions. [2]

Yet, both the pipeline and work-family conflict can not explain the very low representation of women in the corporations. Discrimination and subtle barriers still count as a factor for preventing women from exploring opportunities. Moreover, it was found that when the president or CEO of the corporation was a woman, the number of women working in the high level positions and their earnings increased around 10-20 percent. The effect of female under-representation in the 1500 S & P firms studied. The results indicate women executives earn 45 percent less than male executives based on the 2.5 percent of executives in the sample. Some of the gap is due to seniority, yet mostly it was because of the under-representation of women in CEO, chair or positions and the fact that women managed smaller companies. [2]

Non-neoclassical economists point out subtle barriers play a huge role in women’s disadvantage. These barriers are difficult to document and to remove. For instance, women are left out of male’s network. Moreover, the general perception is better at managing others, which is seen in the Catalyst’s Fortune 1000 survey. The 40 percent of women executives said that they were able to manage their lives. A separate study found out the majority believed in “women, more than men, manifest leadership styles associated with effective performance as leaders, … more people prefer male than female bosses”. [2]In another study in the US about origins of the gender division of labor, “When are the men of the world, men should have more right to a job than women?” women do? “Some answers indicated discriminatory act. [27]

Critique of the neoclassical approach

Neoclassical economics ignores logical explanations of how self-fulfilling prophecy by the employers affect the motivation and psychology of women and minority groups and thus it makes the decision making of individuals about human capital. [3] This is the feedback that correlates with the drop in human capital investment (such as more schooling or training) attainment by women and minorities. [2]

Moreover, power and social relationships link discrimination to sexism and racism, which is ignored in the neoclassical theory. Furthermore, along with the classical and Marxist theory of competition, racial-gender structure of the job is related to the bargaining power and the differential way. Therefore, discrimination, persecution , and discrimination . In short, the power relationships are embedded in the labor market, which are neglected in the neoclassical approach. [3] [28]

In addition, critics have argued that the neoclassical measurement of discrimination is flawed. [4]As Figart [1997] points out, the method does not allow for discrimination in the analysis of discrimination. As a result, we are not informed about the causes and nature of discrimination. She argues that gender and race should not be marginalized in the analysis of the goal of discrimination. Figart argues gender is more than a variable dummy since gender is fundamental to the economy. Moreover, the segmentation in the labor market, institutional variables and non-market factors affect wage differentials and women dominate low-paid occupations. Again, none of these are because of productivity differentials nor are they the outcome of voluntarychoices. Figart also reveals how women’s jobs are associated with unskilled work. For that reason, men do not like their “jobs” with women or women, skills are engendered. [4]

Although empirical evidence is a tool to use to prove discrimination, it is important to pay attention to the biases involved in using this tool. The biases may cause under or over-estimation of labor market discrimination. There is lack of information on the subject of which they affect their potential productivity. The factors such as motivation or work effort, which affects the effects, are difficult to be scaled. Moreover, information regarding the type of college degree may not be available. In short, all the job qualification related factors are not included in this study. [2]

An example for underestimationis the feedback effect of labor market discrimination. That is, women may choose to invest less in such capital as to pursue a career based on the current wage gap, which is also a result of discrimination against women. Another reason may be the childbearing responsibilities of a woman who has a negative impact on women’s careers. By doing so, they give up opportunities, such as the firm-specific training that would have helped their job. An example of over-estimation of gender discrimination is more motivated at work. Therefore, it is wrong to equate unexplained wage gap with discrimination,not all . [2]

Furthermore, empirical evidence can be so trivial that it can not be ignored. Armed Forces Qualifying Test, (AFQT). Neal and Johnson [1996] claimed the economic differences in the black and white labor markets were due to “pre-market factors,” not to discriminate. [29] Darity and Mason’s [1998] study of the same case disagreements with the findings of Neal and Johnson’s [1996]. They take into account factors such as age family background, school quality and psychology . [3]

Government’s efforts to fight discrimination

Why should the government intervene to address discrimination?

Blau et al. [2010] sum up the argument for government intervention to address discrimination. First, discrimination prevents equity or fairness, when an individual does not receive equal treatment. Second, discrimination results in inefficient allocation of resources because they are not hired, promoted or rewarded based on their skills or productivity . [2]

Becker is discriminating in the labor market. His theory is based on the assumption that in order to survive in the existence of competitive markets, can not discriminate in the long run. Strongly believing in the functioning of the market, it was claimed that the use of discrimination in the long run without political intervention. On the contrary, the intervention of human capital investment and regulation of racial interactions make it worse for the disadvantaged groups. Moreover, it was claimed discrimination against discrimination and discrimination . [6] [21]

However, based on the empirical study, either human capital theory or Becker’s tastes theory does not fully explain racial occupational segregation. That is seen in the South as an effect of Civil Rights laws in the 1960s. Therefore, human capital and “taste-for-discrimination” are not sufficient explanations and government intervention is effective. Becker’s claim about employers would not be discriminated against by the evidence of real life facts. Sundstrom [1994] points out, it was also costly to violate the social normssince customers could stop buying the goods or services; or the workers could work or drop their work effort. Moreover, even if the workers or the customers did not participate in such behaviors, the employer would not take the risk of experiencing social norms. This is seen from the historical data that compares the economic outcomes for the white and black races. [6]

Looking at the position of women in the World War II US history

Women worked in the US industrial sector during World War II . However, after the war most women quit jobs The departure of women from industrial jobs is represented by a case of discrimination. [30]

The supply theory claims voluntary movement Because women Worked due to extraordinary circumstances and They Chose to quit. Their involvement is based on their personal experiences and their success depends on personal preferences and a response to feminist ideology. On occupations due to high industrial wages. [30] Tobias and Anderson [1974] present the counter argument for supply theory. [31]In addition, there were both housewives and working class women, who had been working in different occupations. According to Women ‘s Bureau’ s interviews, the majority of women who had been working to continue working after the war. Despite their will, they were ugly more than men. Most of them had to choose lower-paying jobs. [30]

The exit pattern shows their quit was not voluntarily. There were more people working in this field, and they needed to be changed, and more or less needed, which were all known by the management. Women lay-off were higher than men. Briefly, women were treated unequally postwar period the productivity of women was equal to that of men and women was lower wage wage. [30]

Supply and demand theories in the absence of industrial firms after the war. It is wrong to associate patriotism with the war-time women workers since some housewives who quit their jobs at early times when the country needed them most. Some of the housewives have been forced to quit the second highest rate of living. If their only concern was the well-being of their country at the time, persistence to exit would have been observed. [30]

The demand theory holds the position of a person who has worked pre-war time. However, these experienced women workers voluntarily quit working more than housewives did. The reason is work-experience women had many opportunities. However, women with fewer options, such as African-Americans, older married women, housewives and the working people, wanted to keep their jobs as long as possible. Thus, their leave was involuntarily. [30]

Women at job performance at least as good as men’s, citation needed ] instead of trying to equalize country, women’s wages are kept below men’s. citation needed ] Women had higher lay-off rates but they were not reeling from the boom in the auto industry . Some argue this was due to the lack of a civil rights movement. This explanation is unsatisfactory since it does not explain anti-women worker behavior of the management or lack of protection of unions. Kossoudji et al. [1992] believe it is due to the need for two separate wages and benefits packages for men and women. Women had child careand maternity leave. [30]

US anti-discrimination laws

Before the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in the United States. The newspaper ads for various jobs Indicated racial and gender discrimination Explicitly and implicitly. These behaviors were all built on the assumption that women and blacks were inferior. [3]At the turn of the 21st century, discrimination is still practiced to lesser degree and less overtly. The progress on the visible discrimination is visible. However, the effect of the past is persisting on the economic outcome, such as Women are not only under-represented in the high-rank and high-paid jobs, but they are also over-represented in the secondary and lower-paid jobs. The interviews, personal law, labor data and confidential employment records with employees along with other evidence show gender segregation and its effects on the labor market. [4]

Although there is some inevitable occupational segregation based on people’s preferences, discrimination does exist. [2] [3] Moreover, persistence of discrimination remains even after government intervention. There is a decline in the wage gap due to three reasons: secondly, the human capital gap between the two genders and experience gap has been closing; thirdly, but not limited to the national economy of the United States [3]

The correlation of civil rights Act and decrease in discrimination suggests the Act served its purpose. Therefore, it is correct to say that it has been rejected as Becker had claimed. [3] [6] In 1961, Kennedy issued an executive order calling for a presidential commission on the status of women. In 1963, Equal Pay Act , which required the employers to pay the wages for men and women for the same work qualifications, was passed. In 1964, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act with the exception of bona fide occupational qualifications ( BFOQ ) was accepted by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to check the Equal Pay Act andTitle VII were followed. The Title VII of the Civil Rights Act was first written to forbid employment discrimination. Initially prohibited on the basis of race, religion and national origin. However, inclusion of the sex accepted last minute. The Title VII addresses both the disparate impact and disparate treatment. In 1965, Executive Order 11246 was passed and in 1967, it was changed to include sex, which was introduced by all employers with federal contracts and subcontracts. In addition, it makes sure affirmative action takes place. In 1986, sexual harassment was accepted with Supreme Court’s decision. In 1998, the largest sexual harassment settlement was negotiated with $ 34 million to be paid to female workers of Mitsubishi.

As segregation decreased. The gender wage gap started to get smaller after the 1980s, but it is more likely that hiring, promotion and training programs etc. [2] [6]

Affirmative action

Executive Order 11246, which is enforced by the Office of Federal Contract Compliance , is an attempt to eliminate the gap between advantaged and disadvantaged groups on the basis of gender and race. It requires contractors to observe their employment patterns. If there is under-representation of women and minorities, “goals and timetables” are created to employ more of the disadvantaged groups on account of gender and race. The pros and cons of affirmative action have been discussed. Some believe discrimination does not exist, it is not enough, and affirmative action is not needed. Some agree that some affirmative action is needed but they have considerations regarding the use of goals and timetables. Some strong affirmative actionThey would be worried if they would really sincere effort to hire the qualified individuals from the vulnerable groups. [2]

Minimum wage

Rodgers et al. [2003] state minimum wage can be used as a tool to combat discrimination, as well as to promote equality . [28] Discrimination and Discrimination in the Labor Market and Discrimination and Discrimination. Minimum wage is one of these policies that could be used. [28]

The minimum wage has benefits for it, the provision of social security benefits and the provision of social security. It affects women in the informal sector, which is highly dominated by women in the context of discrimination. [28] [32] [33] However, the disadvantages include: first, the second and third time, and secondly, There are public spending cuts, the real value of the wage may decline due to social security . [28]

Others have argued that minimum wage simply shifts wage discrimination to employment discrimination. The logic is that if market wages are lower, then employers have an economic incentive to prefer the hiring of qualified candidates, whereas any workers should be discriminated against by the hiring minorities. Minimum wage laws could be responsible for the young teenagers. [34]

Employer efforts to balance representation

Some employers have made efforts to reduce the impact of unconscious or unintentionalaly bias. [35] After a study found a substantial increase in hiring equity, some musical organizations adopted the blind audition ; in other fields like software engineering, communications, and design, this has taken the form of an anonymized response to a job application or interview challenge. [36]

The language of job listings has been polled; Some phrases or words are believed to resonate with particular demographics, or some stereotypes about particular demographics, and others that may be easily visualized themselves in the position. Examples cited include “rockstar” (which may imply a male) and nurturing vs. dominant language. For example: “Superior ability to satisfy customers and manage company’s association with them”. “Sensitive to customers’ needs, can develop warm customer relationships”. [37] [38]

Employers Concerned about gender and ethnic representation-have adopté practices Such As measuring demographics over time, setting diversity goals, intentionally recruiting in places beyond Those familiar to Existing staff, targeting additional recruiting to forums and social circles qui are rich in female and minority candidates [39 ] [40] Pinterest hAS made ict statistics and public goals, while Increasing efforts at mentorship, Identifying minority candidates early, recruiting more minority interns, and Adopting a ” Rooney Rule ” where at least one minority or female candidate must be Interviewed for Each leadership position, even if they are not in the end hired. [41]

Statistics Canada, Catalog No. 12-001-X, Statistics Canada, Statistique Canada, Statistics Canada, Statistique Canada, Statistics Canada, Statistique Canada, Statistics Canada, Statistique Canada, Statistics Canada, Statistique Canada, Statistics Canada, Statistique Canada. The resulting differences can be used as a benchmark for the next negotiation. To solve both of these problems, some companies have simply set the standard of payment. Other members of the public having a salary within the company, which allows any disparities between employees in the same roles to be detected and corrected. [42]Some research has suggested greater representation of women in the economic modeling of the labor force. [43]

Protected categories

Laws often prohibit discrimination on the basis of: [44]

  • Race or color
  • Ethnicity or national origin
  • Sex or gender
  • Pregnancy
  • Religion or creed
  • Political affiliation
  • Language abilities
  • Citizenship
  • Disability or medical condition
  • Age
  • Sexual orientation
  • Gender identity
  • Marital status

Legal protection

Employees who complain about employment or employment retaliation . [45]

Many countries have laws prohibiting

  • Employment discrimination law in Canada
  • Employment discrimination law in the United States
  • Employment discrimination law in the United Kingdom
  • Employment discrimination law in the European Union

Sometimes these are part of broader anti-discrimination laws which cover other issues.

By region

During the past decade, hiring discrimination Was Measured by means clustering of the golden standard [46] [47] to measure unequal treatment in the labor market, ie connection experiments. These experiments, which are only different in their character, are felt in real vacancies. By monitoring the subsequent call-back of employers, a causal interpretation can be made.



Pervasive levels of ethnic labor market discrimination in Belgium, Greece, Ireland, Sweden and the UK. [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] Job vacancies compared to other candidates with native names. Interestingly, ethnic discrimination is lower among the high-educated and in larger firms. [52] [53]In addition, there is a need for a labor market constraint in the occupation: compared to natives, candidates with a foreign-sounding name are often subject to a job interview , but they have to send you to the market for low pressure. [48] Recent research shows that ethnic discrimination is nowadays driven by employers’ concerns that co-workers and customers prefer collaborating with natives. [54] In addition, volunteering has found a way out of ethnic discrimination in the labor market. [55]


In 2014, a large correspondence experiment was conducted in Belgium. Two applications of graduates, identical except that one revealed a disability (blindness, deafness, or autism), were both felt to be unable to meet their expectations. information. In addition, the researcher randomly discloses the entitlement to a substantial wage subsidy in the applications of the disabled candidates. Disabled candidates had a 48% lower chance to receive a positive reaction from the employer compared to the non-disabled candidates. Potentially due to the fear of the red tape, disclosing a wage subsidy did not affect the employment opportunities of disabled candidates. [56]

Gender and sexual orientation

While overall, no substantial levels of discrimination are found in these situations, where they apply to their fertile ages in France. [57] , [58] and when they apply for male-dominated occupations in Austria. [59]

Discrimination based on sexual orientation varies by country. Revealing a lesbian sexual orientation (low cost), lowers employment opportunities in Cyprus and Greece. [60] [61] [62] [63] In the latter country, a positive effect of revealing a lesbian sexual orientation is found for women at their fertile ages.


Pervasive levels of age discrimination are found in Belgium, England, France, Spain and Sweden. Job candidates revealing age 39% (in Belgium) to 72% (in France) less job interview invitations compared to equal candidates revealing a younger name. Discrimination is heterogeneous by the activity older candidates undertook during their additional post-educational years. In Belgium, they are only discriminated if they have more years of inactivity or irrelevant employment. [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70]

Other grounds

Furthermore, [71] [72] trade union membership, [73] beauty, [74] HIV, [75] religion, [76] youth delinquency, [77] form underemployment , [72] and form depression. [78] Employment at the army is not causal effect on employment opportunities. [79]

North America



Research [80] Conducted in 2010 by University of Toronto Researchers Philip Oreopoulos and Diane Dechief HAS found That resumes featuring English-sounding names sent to Canadian Employers Were more than 35% more Likely recevoir year call-back interview as Compared To abstracts featuring Chinese , Indian or Greek-sounding names. The study, supported by Metropolis BC., a federally funded diversity-research agency, was conducted to investigate why recent immigrants are struggling much more in the Canadian job markets than immigrants in the 1970s. In order to test this hypothesis, dozens of identical resumes, with only the name of the applicant changed, was sent to employers in Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal. Of the three cities surveyed, Metro Vancouver employees, both large and small, were the least swayed by the ethnicity of an applicants’ name. Resumes submitted to employers here are just 20% more likely to get a callback than those with Chinese or Indian names. Through interviews with Canadian employers, the researchers found that they were struggling to make the most of the job market. [80]


In 2006, just over one-half (51%) of people with disabilities were employed. [81]

Employment rates are lower (under 40%) for people with developmental and communication skills, and for jobs with greater mobility, mobility, and agility. [81]

Data from Statistics Canada’s Participation and Activity Limitation Survey [81] (PALS) show that, in 2006, one in four unemployed persons with disabilities past five years, they’ve been refused a job because of their disability. One in twelve employed persons with a disability also reported that they experienced discrimination, with the proportion of discrimination “increasing with the severity of activity limitations”. [82]

Gender and sexual orientation

According to Statistics Canada data, [83] the gender wage gap in Ontario is 26% for full – time, full – year workers. For every $ 1.00 earned by a male worker, a female worker earns 74 cents. In 1987, when the Pay Equity Act was passed, the gender wage gap was 36%. It is estimated that as much as 10 to 15% of the gender wage gap is due to discrimination. [84]

United States


By Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, the results of their seminal correspondence experiment, with 50% more African American-sounding names in the United States. millennium. [85], similarly, a 2009 study found that low-income people in New York City were half-hearted, with similar resumes, interpersonal skills, and demographic characteristics. [86]

Gender and sexual orientation

The Williams Institute , a national think tank at UCLA School of Law , released a 2011 report [87] that has identified sexual orientation and gender identification discrimination in the workplace. According to the report, [87] between 15-43% of lesbian , gay , bisexual or transgender workers are having experienced or being fired, denied promotions or sexual orientation or gender identification. [87]Additionally, only 20 states in the United States of America prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in the workplace. Wisconsin and New Hampshire prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation but not gender identity. [88] On October 4, 2017 Attorney General Jeff Sessions annoncé que la United States Department of Justice will no follow Provide employment protection to transgender Individuals under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 , reversing the position of train Attorney General Eric Holder , during the Obama administration. [89]


A 2013 report [90] was completed by the AARP to identify the impact of age discrimination in the workplace. Of those 1500 individuals who responded to AARP’s 2013 Staying Ahead of the Curve survey, almost 64% of those over 45-74 said they have seen age discrimination in the workplace. Of those, 92% say it was somewhat or very common in their workplace. [90]

Criminal records
Main article: Employment discrimination against persons with criminal records in the United States

Laws restricting employment discrimination for persons who have been convicted of criminal offenses. [91] The US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has made recommendations to employers, intended to prevent criminal record discrimination from being used as a proxy for unlawful racial discrimination. [92]

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