The Employment Non-Discrimination Act ( ENDA ) is proposed in the United States that would prohibit discrimination in employment and employment on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity by employers with at least 15 employees.
ENDA has been introduced in every Congress since 1994 except the 109th . Similar legislation has-been Introduced without crossing since 1974.  The bill Gained its best chance is passing partner after the Democratic Party Gained the majorité after- twelve years of Republican Majorities in the 2006 midterm elections. In 2007, gender identity protections were added to the legislation for the first time. Some sponsors believe that a Democratic majority, ENDA did not have enough votes to pass the House of Representatives with transgenderinclusion and dropped it from the bill, which passed the House and then died in the Senate. President George W. Bush Threatened to veto the measure. LGBT advocacy organizations and the LGBT community were divided over support of the modified bill.
In 2009, following Democratic gains in the 2008 elections , and after the divisiveness of the 2007 debate, Rep. Barney Frank introduced a transgender-inclusive version of ENDA. He introduced it again in 2011, and Sen. Jeff Merkley introduced it in the Senate. On November 7, 2013, Merkley’s bill passed the Senate with bipartisan support by a vote of 64-32. President Barack Obama supported the bill’s passage.
Evidence of employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity
In states that have anti-discrimination policies in place, LGBT complaints are equivalent to the number of claims filed on the basis of the number of claims.   
The Williams Institute estimates the number of LGBT employees: 7 million private sector employees, 1 million state employees, and 200,000 employees of the federal government. Thirty percent of state and local LGBT employees live in California and New York. In comparison, LGBT state and local employees in Montana, North Dakota and Wyoming combined. LGBT employees in California and New York. LGBT people, making it difficult to ascertain the impact of this type of discrimination on non-LGBT individuals.
One source of evidence for hiring discrimination against openly gay mentions from a field that feels two fictitious but realistic resumes to roughly 1,700 entry-level job openings. The two resumes were very similar in terms of the applicant’s qualifications, but one summary for each of the following articles 11.5 percent chance of being interviewed for an interview; openly gay applicants had only a 7.2 percent chance. The callback gap varied according to the location of the job. Texas, Florida, Ohio, and the United States. The Western and Northeastern states in the sample (California, Nevada, Pennsylvania,
Transgender people may experience higher rates of discrimination than the LGBT population. A survey of transgender and gender non-conforming people conducted by the National Center for Transgender Equality found 90 percent of experienced experienced harassment, mistreatment, or discrimination on the job or took actions like hiding who they are to avoid it.  In comparison, the Williams Institute in 2007 found that a 15 to 57 percent difference. 
In a survey conducted by Harris Interactive, 38 percent of LGBT people report incomes less than $ 35,000, compared to 33 percent of all US adults over age 18. 
The current version of the bill under consideration in Congress prohibits private employers with 15 employees from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Religious organizations are provided with the exception of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 .  Non-profit membership-only clubs, except labor unions, are similarly exempt.
All versions of the bill, irrespective of the military’s changing policies with respect to gays and lesbians, have provided an exception to the military’s use of members of the armed forces, though not as an employer of civilians. 
Since the 111th Congress, the amendment of the federal definition of marriage has been established in the Defense of Marriage Act (1995).  Since the 110th Congress, a relative unmarried and unmarried relationship like a married couple and unmarried married couples similarly. 
On May 14, 1974, the fifth anniversary of the Stonewall Rebellion , Reps. Bella Abzug (D-NY) and Ed Koch (D-NY) introduced HR 14752 , the ” Equality Act, ” which would have added sexual orientation and gender identity to the protected classes in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 , thus prohibiting discrimination in employment and access to public accommodations and facilities.  The bill died in June 1974 but was reintroduced in the 115th United States Congress on May 2, 2017. 
In the early 1990s, supporters of the legislation decided to focus on employment. Rep. Gerry Studds introduced the Employment Non-Discrimination Act on June 23, 1994.  The legislation failed in 1994 and 1995.  In 1996, the bill failed on a 49-50 vote in the Senate and was not voted on the House.   Its level of support in the Senate may be represented by some of the compensation for their recent support of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which prohibited the federal government from recognizing same-sex marriages. [ citation needed ] These early versions of ENDA did not include provisions to protect transgenderpeople from discrimination  and ENDA was not introduced in the 109th Congress.
In the 110th United States Congress There Were two versions of the bill, both, of qui Provided employment protections similar to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 .  Reps. Barney Frank , Chris Shays , Tammy Baldwin , and Deborah Pryce Introduced HR 2015 on April 24, 2007. It included gender identitywithin its protections. It defines gender identity as “gender-related identity, appearance, or mannerisms or other gender-related characteristics of an individual, with or without regard to the individual’s designated sex at birth.” It has been adopted by the employer to be “transitioning to” or “transitioning”. 
When that bill died in committee, Frank introduced HR 3685 on September 27, 2007, which did not include gender identity and contained exemptions to employ dress codes. It was endorsed by the Education and Labor Committee on October 18 and the House of Representatives passed it on November 7, 2007, by a vote of 235 to 184, with 14 members not voting.  Introduced a separate piece of legislation to prohibit discrimination in employment on the basis of gender identity. 
Some LGBT activist organizations refused to support HR 3685 because of its failure to cover gender identity.   An exception was the Human Rights Campaign , which received general support from the LGBT community for supporting a non-inclusive ENDA.  The LGBT activist organizations that refused to support HR 3685 argued that ENDA.  They claim that they are not so much gender-neutral as they are in favor of gender protection. . [citation needed ]Others arguing that this was ENDA’s best chance of passing Congress in 30 years, that civil rights victories have been historically been incremental, that concerns about the legislation’s protections were unfounded, and that forgoing a chance to provide immediate workplace protections to millions of lesbians , gays and bisexuals was politically and morally wrong. 
On June 24, 2009, Frank introduced HR 3017 to ban workplace discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity,  with 114 original cosponsors, up from 62 cosponsors for the trans-inclusive bill of 2007. ”  The lead Republican cosponsor was Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R-FL) Republican Main Street Partnership members Mark Kirk (R-IL), Mike Castle (R-DE), Todd Russell Platts (R-PA), Judy Biggert ( R-IL), and Leonard Lance (R-NJ) were among the original cosponsors.  The bill was referred toHouse Education and Labor Committee , which held a hearing on the legislation on September 23, 2009.  At the end of the 111th Congress, HR 3017 had 203 cosponsors in the House. 
On August 5, 2009, Sen. Jeff Merkley introduced ENDA legislation ( S. 1584 ) that included gender identity,  with 38 original cosponsors including Sens. Ted Kennedy (D-MA), Susan Collins (R-ME), Olympia Snowe (R-ME) and Chris Dodd (D-CT).  Sen. Merkley said, “It’s certainly possible that this year, but the [congressional] schedule is very crowded.”  As of March 13, 2010, S. 1584 had 45 co-sponsors and was pending before the Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions (HELP) Committee , which held a hearing on the legislation on November 5, 2009. 
On April 6, 2011, Frank introduced an ENDA bill ( HR 1397 ) in the House to ban workplace discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. 
On April 14, 2011, Sen. Jeff Merkley introduced an ENDA bill ( S. 811 ) in the Senate.  The bill had 39 original cosponsors. On June 19, 2012, the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions held a hearing on the bill. 
Senate vote on the Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2013 . 
On April 25, 2013, Representative Jared Polis (D-CO) introduced an ENDA bill in the House ( HR 1755 ) and Senator Jeff Merkley (D-OR) introduced an ENDA bill in the Senate ( S. 815 ). 
On July 10, 2013, the Senate Health, Education, Labor & Pensions Committee approved ENDA by a 15-7 vote. Senator Lamar Alexander (R-TN) announced he would offer three amendments when the Senate takes up the measure. 
A cloture vote succeeded in the Senate on November 4, 2013, with 61 voting in favor and 30 against, the Senate Allowing to schedule a vote.   Republican Senators Kelly Ayotte (NH), Susan Collins (ME), Orrin Hatch (UT), Dean Heller (NV), Mark Kirk (IL), Rob Portman(OH), and Pat Toomey (PA) For the purpose of closure,  joining 52 of 53.  Claire McCaskill Senators (D-MO) and Lisa Murkowski(R-AK) supported the legislation, but were unable to wait for the closing vote.  
After Rejecting by a vote of 43-55 year amendment by Senator Toomey to expand the religious exemption  and accepting by unanimous voice vote an amendment by Senator Portman prevent prevention to government retaliation contre religious institutions,  the Senate approved on November ENDA 7, 2013, we have 64-32 votes.   Arizona Republicans Jeff Flake and John McCain unexpectedly  joined Sen. Murkowski and the Seven Republicans Both independents and 52 of 53 Democrats again supported the measure, with McCaskill present goal Pennsylvania Senator Bob Casey, who supported the bill’s passage,  absent.
In the House, on September 17, 2014, Polis filed a discharge petition , which, if signed by a majority of the House membership, would force a vote on the ENDA with a narrow religious exemption.  By September 22, it had been endorsed by 190 of the 218 that constitutes a majority.  On December 3, 2014 6 of the 8 Republican Co-Sponsors Asked House Speaker John Boehner to allow a vote on the ” National Defense Authorization Act ” before the end of the 113th Congress .  Later that day, the House Rules Committeevoted 7 to 3 against adding ENDA as an amendment to the 2015 defense authorization bill. 
114th Congress onwards
From the 114th Congress onwards, Efforts to Pass the Non-Discrimination Act .
In favor of ENDA
Political proponents of the right to address where gay , lesbian , bisexual , and transgender employees have been discriminated against by their employers because of their sexual orientation or gender identity. Currently, employees are thesis Unable to find protection in the courts Because sexual orientation is not regarded to be a suspect class by the federal courts and by Many US states. Proponents argue that such a law is appropriate in the light of the United States Constitution ‘s guarantees of equal protection and due processto all. Advocates argue that homosexuality is not a “choice” but a personal identity, a claim supported by the American Psychology Association (APA), and that all working people have a right to be judged by the quality of their work performance and not by completely unrelated factors.  According to a study published in 2001 by the Williams Institute at the UCLA School of Law, reports of discrimination based on sexual orientation are roughly equal to those of race or gender.  The APA also states that there is significant discrimination against homosexuals in the workforce. 
The Congressional Budget Office in 2002 estimated that the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ‘s complaint would be raised by 5 to 7% as a result of the proposed law.  Assessments of the impact of comparable state policies also show a minimal impact on caseload.  Regarding constitutionality, the act incorporates language similar to that of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ,  which has consistently been upheld by the courts.
In 1994, Barry Goldwater , a member of the conservative and libertarian movements, became an honorary chairman of a federal law preventing discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. 
In opposition to ENDA
Ed Vitagliano, director of research for the American Family Association (AFA), commented on the impact of anti-discrimination laws on religious organizations. He cited a lack of clarity in relation to the narrow exemption and the use of clergy. 
The Traditional Values Coalition (TVC) has had a negative impact on schooling by eliminating schools’ ability to avoid hiring transgender teachers. It said that “If ENDA passes, students and children in daycare centers all across the nation will be subjected to individuals experimenting with their gender identities.” 
Some Libertarians argue that laws against private sector discrimination are acts of coercion that infringe on employers’ property rights and freedom of association . 
The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops said ENDA goes beyond prohibiting discrimination and poses several problems. It notes, for example, que la Bill: (1) lacks an exception for a ” bona fide occupational qualification,” which exists for every other category of discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act , except for race; (2) lacks distinction between homosexual inclination and conduct , thus affirming and protecting extramarital sexual conduct; (3) supports the definition of marriage, as a state-level laws; (4) rejects the biological basis of gender by defininggender identity “as something people may choose to be affected by their biological diversity and (5) threatens religious liberty by punishing the discrimination of the moral or moral disapproval of same-sex sexual conduct, while protecting only some religious employers. 
In June and July 2014, several pro-LGBT advocacy groups, including the American Civil Liberties Union , the National Center for Lesbian Rights , the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force , Transgender Law Center , and Lambda Legal , announced they were withdrawing support for the 113th Congress. version of ENDA because of their concerns about the breadth of their religious exemption in relation to the ruling in Burwell c. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. . 
|Congress||Short title||Bill number (s)||Gender identity included?||Date introduced||Sponsor (s)||# of cosponsors||Latest status|
|103rd Congress||Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 1994||HR 4636||No.||June 23, 1994||Gerry Studds
|137||Died in the House Subcommittee on Education and Civil Rights|
|S. 2238||No.||July 29, 1994||Ted Kennedy
|30||In the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources|
|104th Congress||Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 1995||HR 1863||No.||June 15, 1995||Gerry Studds
|142||Died in the House Subcommittee on the Constitution|
|S. 932||No.||June 15, 1995||Jim Jeffords
|30||In the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources|
|S. 2056||No.||September 5, 1996||Ted Kennedy
|3||Failed in Senate (49-50)|
|105th Congress||Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 1997||HR 1858||No.||June 10, 1997||Christopher Shays
|140||Died in the House Subcommittee on Employer-Employee Relations|
|S. 869||No.||June 10, 1997||Jim Jeffords
|34||In the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources|
|106th Congress||Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 1999||HR 2355||No.||June 24, 1999||Christopher Shays
|173||Died in the House Subcommittee on Employer-Employee Relations|
|S. 1276||No.||June 24, 1999||Jim Jeffords
|36||Died in the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions|
|107th Congress||Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2001||HR 2692||No.||July 31, 2001||Christopher Shays
|193||Died in the House Subcommittee on Employer-Employee Relations|
|Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2002||S. 1284||No.||July 31, 2001||Ted Kennedy
|44||Died in the Senate|
|108th Congress||Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2003||HR 3285||No.||October 8, 2003||Christopher Shays
|180||Died in the House Subcommittee on Employer-Employee Relations|
|S. 1705||No.||October 2, 2003||Ted Kennedy
|43||Died in the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions|
|110th Congress||Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2007||HR 2015||Yes||April 24, 2007||Barney Frank
|184||Died in the House Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Liberties and Civil Liberties|
|HR 3685||No.||September 27, 2007||Barney Frank
|9||Passed the House (235-184), died in the Senate|
|111th Congress||Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2009||HR 3017||Yes||June 24, 2009||Barney Frank
|203||Died in the Judiciary , House Administration , Education and Labor , and Oversight and Government ReformCommittees. Hearings held September 23, 2009 in Education and Labor Committee.|
|HR 2981||Yes||June 19, 2009||Barney Frank
|12||Died in the House Judiciary Committee|
|S. 1584||Yes||August 5, 2009||Jeff Merkley
|45||Died in the Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee Hearings held November 5, 2009.|
|112th Congress||Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2011||HR 1397||Yes||April 6, 2011||Barney Frank
|171||Died in the Education and Workforce , House Administration , Oversight and Government Reform , and Judiciarycommittees.|
|S. 811||Yes||April 14, 2011||Jeff Merkley
|43||Died in the Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee. Hearings held June 12, 2012.|
|113th Congress||Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2013||HR 1755||Yes||April 25, 2013||Jared Polis
|205||Referred to the Education and Workforce , House Administration , Oversight and Government Reform , andJudiciary committees.|
|S. 815||Yes||April 25, 2013||Jeff Merkley
|56||Passed in Senate (64-32), died in the House.|
From the 114th Congress onwards, Efforts to Pass the Non-Discrimination Act .
- Equality Act of 2015
- Jump up^ “Nondiscrimination legislation historical timeline” . National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. Archived from the original on May 24, 2014 . Retrieved June 17, 2017 .
- Jump up^ “The State of the Workplace: For Lesbians, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Americans” (PDF) . Human Rights Campaign . Retrieved December 15, 2013 .
- Jump up^ Evidence Discrimination based on sexual orientation occurs at a rate similar to that of a woman at 4.7 per 10,000, compared to 6.4 and race at 6.5.
- Jump up^ Ramos, Christopher. “Evidence of Employment Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Complaints Filed with State Enforcement Agencies, 1999-2007” (PDF) . The Williams Institute. Retrieved December 16, 2013 .
- Jump up^ “Estimates of LGBT Public Employees” . The Williams Institute . Retrieved April 30, 2011 .
- Jump up^ Tilcsik, A. (2011). Pride and prejudice: Employment discrimination against gay men in the United States. American Journal of Sociology, 117, 586-626.
- Jump up^ Grant, Jamie M. “Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey” . National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014.
- Jump up^ Badgette, MV Lee. “Bias in the Workplace: Evidence of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination” (PDF) . The Williams Institute . Retrieved December 16, 2013 .
- Jump up^ Witeck, Bob. “Ending Employment Discrimination in America: Lies, Damned Lies and Statistics About America’s LGBT Families” . Retrieved December 16, 2013 .
- Jump up^ Bendery, Jennifer (8 July 2014). “Gay Rights Groups Pull Support For ENDA Over Sweeping Religious Exemption” . Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- Jump up^ 103rd Congress: “For the purpose of this Act, the term employment or employment opportunities” does not apply to the relationship between the United States and the Armed Forces. 112th Congress: “In this Act, the term ’employment’ does not apply to the relationship between the United States and the Armed Forces.”
- Jump up^ 111th and 112th Congresses: “In this Act, the term ‘married’ refers to marriage as defined in section 7 of title 1, United States Code (commonly known as the ‘Defense of Marriage Act’).”
- Jump up^ 112th Congress: “Nothing in this Act shall be construed to require a covered entity to treat a married couple in the same manner as the covered entity.
- Jump up^ S 2056 – Employment Nondiscrimination Act of 1996 – Voting Record
- Jump up^ (October 13, 2007)Congressmember US Bella S. AbzugStonewall.org. Accessed October 20, 2007.
- Jump up^ Report, Staff (2017-05-04). “Equality Act Reintroduced in Congress with Unprecedented Corporate Support” . njtoday.net . Retrieved 2017-07-29 .
- Jump up^ [Congressional Record, 103rd Congress, 2nd Session, 140 Cong. Rec. E 1311; Flight. 140 No. 81 (June 23, 1994).]
- Jump up^ Wendland, Joel. (April 9, 2007)A New Beginning for ENDAArchivedJanuary 25, 2008, at theWayback Machine. The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. Accessed October 20, 2007.
- Jump up^ Bull, Chris. (May 13, 1997)No ENDA in sight – Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 1996The Advocate. Accessed October 20, 2007.
- Jump up^ Manley, Roslyn. (June 17, 2003)New “Unified” Bill to Replace ENDA: A Left Coast Perspective ArchivedFebruary 17, 2004, at theWayback Machine. TG Crossroads. Accessed October 20, 2007; MetroWeekly:Chris Geidner, “Double Defeat,” September 15, 2011, accessed February 10, 2012
- Jump up^ HR 3685
- Jump up^ HR 3685 (110th): Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2007 (On Passage of the Bill)
- ^ Jump up to:a b Civil Rights Act of 1964
- Jump up^ Weiss, Jillian Todd. (April 26, 2007)The text of the ENDATransgender Workplace Diversity Blog. Accessed October 20, 2007.
- Jump up^ Final Vote Results For HR 3685
- Jump up^ Eleveld, Kerry. (September 29, 2007)”ENDA to Be Separated Into Two Bills: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity” The Advocate. Accessed October 20, 2007.
- Jump up^ “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on May 9, 2008 . Retrieved 2007-10-11 .
- Jump up^ http://nosubstitutes.org ArchivedOctober 10, 2007, at theWayback Machine.
- Jump up^ Schindler, Paul (October 4, 2007). “HRC Alone in Eschewing No-Compromise Stand” . Gay City News . Archived from the original on April 9, 2008 . Retrieved December 17, 2013 .
- Jump up^ Smith, Nadine (September 29, 2007). “At Moment of Truth” . The Bilerico Project . Retrieved March 22, 2012 .
- Jump up^ Aravosis, John (October 8, 2007). “How did the get in LGBT?” . Salon.com . Retrieved March 22, 2012 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Frank Introducing Trans-Inclusive ENDA | News | Advocate.com:
- Jump up^ Johnson, Chris (November 30, 2011). “Pro-LGBT Republican endorses Romney” . Washington Blade . Retrieved June 25, 2009 .
- Jump up^ Search Results – THOMAS (Library of Congress)
- Jump up^ “Congressional hearing on ENDA: great success!” . Bilerico.com.
- Jump up^ Search Results – THOMAS (Library of Congress):
- ^ Jump up to:a b Search Results – THOMAS (Library of Congress)
- Jump up^ “Merkley, Collins, Kennedy, Snow Introduce Legislation To End Workplace Discrimination, August 5, 2009” . US Senate . Retrieved October 6, 2012 .
- Jump up^ Harmon, Andrew (August 5, 2009). “Possible ENDA by Year’s End” . The Advocate . Retrieved August 5, 2009 . As President of the Oregon House of Representatives, Merkley successfully managed the enactment of Oregon’s state of the ENDA version, theOregon Equality Act. Teigen, Kristin (August 5, 2009). “Senator Jeff Merkley Introduces the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA)” . BlueOregon . Mandate Media . Retrieved March 22, 2012 .
- Jump up^ “Employment Non-Discrimination Act: Ensuring Opportunity for All Americans” . Washington Blade . US Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. June 12, 2012.
- Jump up^ Geidner, Chris. “ENDA Introduced – With 92 Fewer Co-Sponsors Than At The End Of The 111th Congress” . MetroWeekly . Retrieved April 7,2011 .
- Jump up^ “Merkley, Kirk, Harkin, Introduce Collins Legislation to End Workplace Discrimination” . Office of Senator Jeff Merkley . Retrieved April 14, 2011.
- Jump up^ Johnson, Chris. “Trans advocate testifies before Senate on ENDA” . Retrieved October 6, 2012 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b “Roll Call Vote On Passage of the Bill (S. 815 As Amended)” . www.senate.gov . Retrieved November 7, 2013 .
- Jump up^ Benen, Steve. “ENDA introduced with bipartisan backing” . Retrieved April 25, 2013 .
- Jump up^ “Senate panel advances trans-inclusive ENDA” . Washington Blade. July 10, 2013.
- Jump up^ “Reid sets up Senate vote Monday for ENDA” . Washington Blade. October 31, 2013.
- Jump up^ “Gay Rights Advances in Senate” . Politico. November 4, 2013.
- Jump up^ “ENDA Prevails in the Senate, 61-30” . Slate. November 4, 2013.
- Jump up^ “Roll Call Vote on Closing on the Motion to Proceed (Motion to Invoke Closing on the Motion to Proceed to S. 815)” . www.senate.gov . Retrieved November 7, 2013 .
- Jump up^ Terkel, Amanda (November 4, 2013). “ENDA Vote: Senate Major Hurdle Clears On Bill Barring LGBT Workplace Discrimination” . The Huffington Post . Retrieved November 7, 2013 .
- Jump up^ Brydum, Sunnivie (November 4, 2013). “Senate Passes ENDA on Procedural Vote” . The Advocate . Retrieved November 7, 2013 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Brydum, Sunnivie (November 7, 2013). “Senate Approves ENDA” . The Advocate . Retrieved November 7, 2013 .
- Jump up^ Cox, Ramsey (November 6, 2013). “Senate adopts ENDA amendment designed to protect churches” . The Hill . Retrieved November 7, 2013 .
- Jump up^ Peters, Jeremy W. (November 7, 2013). “Senate Approves Ban on Antigay Bias in Workplace” . The New York Times . Retrieved November 7, 2013 .
- Jump up^ “Casey Statement on Senate ENDA Vote” . casey.senate.gov. November 7, 2013 . Retrieved November 7, 2013 .
- Jump up^ Johnson, Chris (September 17, 2014). “Discharge petition filed for ENDA with narrowed religious exemption” . Washington Blade . Retrieved September 22, 2014 .
- Jump up^ US House of RepresentativesMotion to Discharge a Committee from the Consideration of a Resolution, accessed September 22, 2014
- Jump up^ Snow, Justin (December 3, 2014). “House Republicans urge Boehner to allow ENDA vote” . Metro Weekly . Retrieved December 3, 2014 .
- Jump up^ Johnson, Chris (December 3, 2014). “House panel rejects last-ditch effort to ENDA pass” . Washington Blade . Retrieved December 3, 2014.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Examining the Employment Nondiscrimination Act (ENDA): The Scientists Perspective American Psychological Association. Accessed May 22, 2010.
- Jump up^ Rubenstein, William B. (January 30, 2002)Do Gay Rights Laws Matter ?: An Empirical Assessment Archived onJune 25, 2010, at theWayback Machine. The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. Accessed October 20, 2007.
- Jump up^ (April 24, 2002)CBO Cost Estimate: S. 1284 Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2002Congressional Budget Office. Accessed October 20, 2007.
- Jump up^ “Employment Discrimination Against Lesbians, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People in Oklahoma” . The Williams Institute . Retrieved May 1, 2011 .
- Jump up^ “Goldwater Barry, GOP Hero, Dies” . Washington Post . June 5, 1998. Retrieved November 2, 2013 .
- Jump up^ Vitagliano, Ed. “How ENDA Could Begin an Uncivil War” . American Family Association Journal . Retrieved April 30, 2011 .
- Jump up^ “ENDA Kids Hurts: The Impact on Classrooms” (PDF) . TVC Education & Legal Institute . Traditional Values Coalition . Retrieved July 7, 2014 .
- Jump up^ “Context Matters: A Better Libertarian Approach to Antidiscrimination Law” . Cato Unbound . Retrieved December 12, 2012 .
- Jump up^ “Questions and Answers About the Employee Non-Discrimination Act”(PDF) . United States Conference of Catholic Bishops . Retrieved November 4, 2013 .
- Jump up^ Bendery, Jennifer (July 8, 2014). “Gay Rights Groups Pull Support For ENDA Over Sweeping Religious Exemption” . The Huffington Post . Retrieved July 13, 2015 .