Employment Non-Discrimination Act

The Employment Non-Discrimination Act ( ENDA ) is proposed in the United States that would prohibit discrimination in employment and employment on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity by employers with at least 15 employees.

ENDA has been introduced in every Congress since 1994 except the 109th . Similar legislation has-been Introduced without crossing since 1974. [1] The bill Gained its best chance is passing partner after the Democratic Party Gained the majorité after- twelve years of Republican Majorities in the 2006 midterm elections. In 2007, gender identity protections were added to the legislation for the first time. Some sponsors believe that a Democratic majority, ENDA did not have enough votes to pass the House of Representatives with transgenderinclusion and dropped it from the bill, which passed the House and then died in the Senate. President George W. Bush Threatened to veto the measure. LGBT advocacy organizations and the LGBT community were divided over support of the modified bill.

In 2009, following Democratic gains in the 2008 elections , and after the divisiveness of the 2007 debate, Rep. Barney Frank introduced a transgender-inclusive version of ENDA. He introduced it again in 2011, and Sen. Jeff Merkley introduced it in the Senate. On November 7, 2013, Merkley’s bill passed the Senate with bipartisan support by a vote of 64-32. President Barack Obama supported the bill’s passage.

Evidence of employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity

Main article: LGBT employment discrimination in the United States

In states that have anti-discrimination policies in place, LGBT complaints are equivalent to the number of claims filed on the basis of the number of claims. [2] [3] [4]

The Williams Institute estimates the number of LGBT employees: 7 million private sector employees, 1 million state employees, and 200,000 employees of the federal government. Thirty percent of state and local LGBT employees live in California and New York. In comparison, LGBT state and local employees in Montana, North Dakota and Wyoming combined. [5]LGBT employees in California and New York. LGBT people, making it difficult to ascertain the impact of this type of discrimination on non-LGBT individuals.

One source of evidence for hiring discrimination against openly gay mentions from a field that feels two fictitious but realistic resumes to roughly 1,700 entry-level job openings. The two resumes were very similar in terms of the applicant’s qualifications, but one summary for each of the following articles 11.5 percent chance of being interviewed for an interview; openly gay applicants had only a 7.2 percent chance. The callback gap varied according to the location of the job. Texas, Florida, Ohio, and the United States. The Western and Northeastern states in the sample (California, Nevada, Pennsylvania,[6]

Transgender people may experience higher rates of discrimination than the LGBT population. A survey of transgender and gender non-conforming people conducted by the National Center for Transgender Equality found 90 percent of experienced experienced harassment, mistreatment, or discrimination on the job or took actions like hiding who they are to avoid it. [7] In comparison, the Williams Institute in 2007 found that a 15 to 57 percent difference. [8]

In a survey conducted by Harris Interactive, 38 percent of LGBT people report incomes less than $ 35,000, compared to 33 percent of all US adults over age 18. [9]

Provisions

The current version of the bill under consideration in Congress prohibits private employers with 15 employees from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Religious organizations are provided with the exception of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 . [10] Non-profit membership-only clubs, except labor unions, are similarly exempt.

All versions of the bill, irrespective of the military’s changing policies with respect to gays and lesbians, have provided an exception to the military’s use of members of the armed forces, though not as an employer of civilians. [11]

Since the 111th Congress, the amendment of the federal definition of marriage has been established in the Defense of Marriage Act (1995). [12] Since the 110th Congress, a relative unmarried and unmarried relationship like a married couple and unmarried married couples similarly. [13]

Legislative activity

On May 14, 1974, the fifth anniversary of the Stonewall Rebellion , Reps. Bella Abzug (D-NY) and Ed Koch (D-NY) introduced HR 14752 , the ” Equality Act, ” which would have added sexual orientation and gender identity to the protected classes in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 , thus prohibiting discrimination in employment and access to public accommodations and facilities. [15] The bill died in June 1974 but was reintroduced in the 115th United States Congress on May 2, 2017. [16]

In the early 1990s, supporters of the legislation decided to focus on employment. Rep. Gerry Studds introduced the Employment Non-Discrimination Act on June 23, 1994. [17] The legislation failed in 1994 and 1995. [18] In 1996, the bill failed on a 49-50 vote in the Senate and was not voted on the House. [19] [20] Its level of support in the Senate may be represented by some of the compensation for their recent support of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which prohibited the federal government from recognizing same-sex marriages. citation needed ] These early versions of ENDA did not include provisions to protect transgenderpeople from discrimination [21] and ENDA was not introduced in the 109th Congress.

110th Congress

House of Nondiscrimination Act of 2007 by Congressional District. [22]
Democratic aye
Republican aye
Abstention or no representative seated
Democratic no
Republican no

In the 110th United States Congress There Were two versions of the bill, both, of qui Provided employment protections similar to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 . [23] Reps. Barney Frank , Chris Shays , Tammy Baldwin , and Deborah Pryce Introduced HR 2015 on April 24, 2007. It included gender identitywithin its protections. It defines gender identity as “gender-related identity, appearance, or mannerisms or other gender-related characteristics of an individual, with or without regard to the individual’s designated sex at birth.” It has been adopted by the employer to be “transitioning to” or “transitioning”. [24]

When that bill died in committee, Frank introduced HR 3685 on September 27, 2007, which did not include gender identity and contained exemptions to employ dress codes. It was endorsed by the Education and Labor Committee on October 18 and the House of Representatives passed it on November 7, 2007, by a vote of 235 to 184, with 14 members not voting. [25] Introduced a separate piece of legislation to prohibit discrimination in employment on the basis of gender identity. [26]

Some LGBT activist organizations refused to support HR 3685 because of its failure to cover gender identity. [27] [28] An exception was the Human Rights Campaign , which received general support from the LGBT community for supporting a non-inclusive ENDA. [29] The LGBT activist organizations that refused to support HR 3685 argued that ENDA. [30] They claim that they are not so much gender-neutral as they are in favor of gender protection. . [citation needed ]Others arguing that this was ENDA’s best chance of passing Congress in 30 years, that civil rights victories have been historically been incremental, that concerns about the legislation’s protections were unfounded, and that forgoing a chance to provide immediate workplace protections to millions of lesbians , gays and bisexuals was politically and morally wrong. [31]

111th Congress

On June 24, 2009, Frank introduced HR 3017 to ban workplace discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, [32] with 114 original cosponsors, up from 62 cosponsors for the trans-inclusive bill of 2007. ” [32] The lead Republican cosponsor was Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R-FL) [33]Republican Main Street Partnership members Mark Kirk (R-IL), Mike Castle (R-DE), Todd Russell Platts (R-PA), Judy Biggert ( R-IL), and Leonard Lance (R-NJ) were among the original cosponsors. [34] The bill was referred toHouse Education and Labor Committee , which held a hearing on the legislation on September 23, 2009. [35] At the end of the 111th Congress, HR 3017 had 203 cosponsors in the House. [36]

On August 5, 2009, Sen. Jeff Merkley introduced ENDA legislation ( S. 1584 ) that included gender identity, [37] with 38 original cosponsors including Sens. Ted Kennedy (D-MA), Susan Collins (R-ME), Olympia Snowe (R-ME) and Chris Dodd (D-CT). [38] Sen. Merkley said, “It’s certainly possible that this year, but the [congressional] schedule is very crowded.” [39] As of March 13, 2010, S. 1584 had 45 co-sponsors and was pending before the Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions (HELP) Committee , [37]which held a hearing on the legislation on November 5, 2009. [40]

112th Congress

On April 6, 2011, Frank introduced an ENDA bill ( HR 1397 ) in the House to ban workplace discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. [41]

On April 14, 2011, Sen. Jeff Merkley introduced an ENDA bill ( S. 811 ) in the Senate. [42] The bill had 39 original cosponsors. On June 19, 2012, the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor & Pensions held a hearing on the bill. [43]

Senate vote on the Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2013 . [44]

Both yes
One yes, one did not vote
One yes, one no
One no, one did not vote
Both no

113th Congress

On April 25, 2013, Representative Jared Polis (D-CO) introduced an ENDA bill in the House ( HR 1755 ) and Senator Jeff Merkley (D-OR) introduced an ENDA bill in the Senate ( S. 815 ). [45]

On July 10, 2013, the Senate Health, Education, Labor & Pensions Committee approved ENDA by a 15-7 vote. Senator Lamar Alexander (R-TN) announced he would offer three amendments when the Senate takes up the measure. [46]

A cloture vote succeeded in the Senate on November 4, 2013, with 61 voting in favor and 30 against, the Senate Allowing to schedule a vote. [47] [48] Republican Senators Kelly Ayotte (NH), Susan Collins (ME), Orrin Hatch (UT), Dean Heller (NV), Mark Kirk (IL), Rob Portman(OH), and Pat Toomey (PA) For the purpose of closure, [49] joining 52 of 53. [50] Claire McCaskill Senators (D-MO) and Lisa Murkowski(R-AK) supported the legislation, but were unable to wait for the closing vote. [51] [52]

After Rejecting by a vote of 43-55 year amendment by Senator Toomey to expand the religious exemption [53] and accepting by unanimous voice vote an amendment by Senator Portman prevent prevention to government retaliation contre religious institutions, [54] the Senate approved on November ENDA 7, 2013, we have 64-32 votes. [44] [55] Arizona Republicans Jeff Flake and John McCain unexpectedly [53] joined Sen. Murkowski and the Seven Republicans Both independents and 52 of 53 Democrats again supported the measure, with McCaskill present goal Pennsylvania Senator Bob Casey, who supported the bill’s passage, [56] absent.

In the House, on September 17, 2014, Polis filed a discharge petition , which, if signed by a majority of the House membership, would force a vote on the ENDA with a narrow religious exemption. [57] By September 22, it had been endorsed by 190 of the 218 that constitutes a majority. [58] On December 3, 2014 6 of the 8 Republican Co-Sponsors Asked House Speaker John Boehner to allow a vote on the ” National Defense Authorization Act ” before the end of the 113th Congress . [59] Later that day, the House Rules Committeevoted 7 to 3 against adding ENDA as an amendment to the 2015 defense authorization bill. [60]

114th Congress onwards

From the 114th Congress onwards, Efforts to Pass the Non-Discrimination Act .

Arguments

In favor of ENDA

Political proponents of the right to address where gay , lesbian , bisexual , and transgender employees have been discriminated against by their employers because of their sexual orientation or gender identity. Currently, employees are thesis Unable to find protection in the courts Because sexual orientation is not regarded to be a suspect class by the federal courts and by Many US states. Proponents argue that such a law is appropriate in the light of the United States Constitution ‘s guarantees of equal protection and due processto all. Advocates argue that homosexuality is not a “choice” but a personal identity, a claim supported by the American Psychology Association (APA), and that all working people have a right to be judged by the quality of their work performance and not by completely unrelated factors. [61] According to a study published in 2001 by the Williams Institute at the UCLA School of Law, reports of discrimination based on sexual orientation are roughly equal to those of race or gender. [62] The APA also states that there is significant discrimination against homosexuals in the workforce. [61]

The Congressional Budget Office in 2002 estimated that the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ‘s complaint would be raised by 5 to 7% as a result of the proposed law. [63] Assessments of the impact of comparable state policies also show a minimal impact on caseload. [64] Regarding constitutionality, the act incorporates language similar to that of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 , [23] which has consistently been upheld by the courts.

In 1994, Barry Goldwater , a member of the conservative and libertarian movements, became an honorary chairman of a federal law preventing discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. [65]

In opposition to ENDA

Ed Vitagliano, director of research for the American Family Association (AFA), commented on the impact of anti-discrimination laws on religious organizations. He cited a lack of clarity in relation to the narrow exemption and the use of clergy. [66]

The Traditional Values ​​Coalition (TVC) has had a negative impact on schooling by eliminating schools’ ability to avoid hiring transgender teachers. It said that “If ENDA passes, students and children in daycare centers all across the nation will be subjected to individuals experimenting with their gender identities.” [67]

Some Libertarians argue that laws against private sector discrimination are acts of coercion that infringe on employers’ property rights and freedom of association . [68]

The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops said ENDA goes beyond prohibiting discrimination and poses several problems. It notes, for example, que la Bill: (1) lacks an exception for a ” bona fide occupational qualification,” which exists for every other category of discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act , except for race; (2) lacks distinction between homosexual inclination and conduct , thus affirming and protecting extramarital sexual conduct; (3) supports the definition of marriage, as a state-level laws; (4) rejects the biological basis of gender by defininggender identity “as something people may choose to be affected by their biological diversity and (5) threatens religious liberty by punishing the discrimination of the moral or moral disapproval of same-sex sexual conduct, while protecting only some religious employers. [69]

In June and July 2014, several pro-LGBT advocacy groups, including the American Civil Liberties Union , the National Center for Lesbian Rights , the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force , Transgender Law Center , and Lambda Legal , announced they were withdrawing support for the 113th Congress. version of ENDA because of their concerns about the breadth of their religious exemption in relation to the ruling in Burwell c. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. . [70]

Legislative history

Congress Short title Bill number (s) Gender identity included? Date introduced Sponsor (s) # of cosponsors Latest status
103rd Congress Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 1994 HR 4636 No. June 23, 1994 Gerry Studds
(D-MA)
137 Died in the House Subcommittee on Education and Civil Rights
S. 2238 No. July 29, 1994 Ted Kennedy
(D-MA)
30 In the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources
104th Congress Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 1995 HR 1863 No. June 15, 1995 Gerry Studds
(D-MA)
142 Died in the House Subcommittee on the Constitution
S. 932 No. June 15, 1995 Jim Jeffords
(R-VT)
30 In the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources
S. 2056 No. September 5, 1996 Ted Kennedy
(D-MA)
3 Failed in Senate (49-50)
105th Congress Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 1997 HR 1858 No. June 10, 1997 Christopher Shays
(R-CT)
140 Died in the House Subcommittee on Employer-Employee Relations
S. 869 No. June 10, 1997 Jim Jeffords
(R-VT)
34 In the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources
106th Congress Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 1999 HR 2355 No. June 24, 1999 Christopher Shays
(R-CT)
173 Died in the House Subcommittee on Employer-Employee Relations
S. 1276 No. June 24, 1999 Jim Jeffords
(R-VT)
36 Died in the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions
107th Congress Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2001 HR 2692 No. July 31, 2001 Christopher Shays
(R-CT)
193 Died in the House Subcommittee on Employer-Employee Relations
Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2002 S. 1284 No. July 31, 2001 Ted Kennedy
(D-MA)
44 Died in the Senate
108th Congress Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2003 HR 3285 No. October 8, 2003 Christopher Shays
(R-CT)
180 Died in the House Subcommittee on Employer-Employee Relations
S. 1705 No. October 2, 2003 Ted Kennedy
(D-MA)
43 Died in the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions
110th Congress Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2007 HR 2015 Yes April 24, 2007 Barney Frank
(D-MA)
184 Died in the House Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Liberties and Civil Liberties
HR 3685 No. September 27, 2007 Barney Frank
(D-MA)
9 Passed the House (235-184), died in the Senate
111th Congress Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2009 HR 3017 Yes June 24, 2009 Barney Frank
(D-MA)
203 Died in the Judiciary , House Administration , Education and Labor , and Oversight and Government ReformCommittees. Hearings held September 23, 2009 in Education and Labor Committee.
HR 2981 Yes June 19, 2009 Barney Frank
(D-MA)
12 Died in the House Judiciary Committee
S. 1584 Yes August 5, 2009 Jeff Merkley
(D-OR)
45 Died in the Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee Hearings held November 5, 2009.
112th Congress Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2011 HR 1397 Yes April 6, 2011 Barney Frank
(D-MA)
171 Died in the Education and Workforce , House Administration , Oversight and Government Reform , and Judiciarycommittees.
S. 811 Yes April 14, 2011 Jeff Merkley
(D-OR)
43 Died in the Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee. Hearings held June 12, 2012.
113th Congress Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2013 HR 1755 Yes April 25, 2013 Jared Polis
(D-CO)
205 Referred to the Education and Workforce , House Administration , Oversight and Government Reform , andJudiciary committees.
S. 815 Yes April 25, 2013 Jeff Merkley
(D-OR)
56 Passed in Senate (64-32), died in the House.

From the 114th Congress onwards, Efforts to Pass the Non-Discrimination Act .

See also

  • Equality Act of 2015

References

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