LGBT employment discrimination in the United States

The regulation of LGBT employment discrimination in the United States varies by jurisdiction. Many, but not all, states and localities prohibit bias in hiring, promotion, job assignment, termination, and compensation, as well as harassment on the basis of one’s sexual orientation . Fewer prolonged the protections to cover sexual identity . [1] Some cover government employees do not extend their protections to the private sector. Protections at the national level are limited. There is no federal statute of employment discrimination discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. However, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission(EEOC) Title VII Interpreters of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to cover discrimination against LGBT employees, “allegations of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. [2] This interpretation is in essence the essence of the law of discrimination in relation to the civil rights act of 1964. [3] In 2012 the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ruled that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 does not allow gender identity-based employment discrimination because it is a form of sex discrimination. [4] Then in 2015, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission concluded thatTitle VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 does not allow sexual orientation discrimination in employment because it is a form of sex discrimination. [5] [6] However, these rulings, while persuasive, may not be binding on short. [7]

On April 9, 2015, the gender identity ruling went into effect when Judge Mary S. Scriven of the US District Court for the Middle District of Florida approved consent to enter into the EEOC and Lakeland Eye Clinic, PA and ordered the Florida- $ 150,000.00 in the search for a victim of their gender identity. [8] [9] The EEOC ruling on sexual orientation also went into effect in June 2016, when the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission reached an agreement against a Pallet Companies, doing business as IFCO Systems, which agreed to pay $ 202,200 and provide significant equitable relief as a result of a lesbian employee alleging discrimination based on sexual orientation. [8]

Federal employees and law

Presidents have established certain protections for some employees of the federal government by executive order . LGBT Discrimination in the Work Force. In 1995 President Bill Clinton ‘s Executive Order 12968Establishing criteria for non-discrimination: The United States Government does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, disability, or sexual orientation in granting access to classified information. ” It also says that “no inference” about suitability for access to information is “only useful for the sexual orientation of the employee.” [10] Clinton’s Executive Order 13087in 1998, discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in the competitive service of the federal civilian workforce. It is intended to employ employees of the Government of the United States of America and the United States of America and the United States of America, but the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Clinton acknowledges its limitations in a statement: [11]

The Executive Order states the administration of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. These rights may be granted by the Congress, such as the Employment Non-Discrimination Act.

At the start of 2010, the Obama administration included gender identity among the classes under the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). It has been chosen to further LGBT civil rights not only through legislation, but also the executive branch. In 2012 the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ruled that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 does not allow gender identity-based employment discrimination because it is a form of sex discrimination. [4] In 2015, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission concluded that Title VIIof the Civil Rights Act of 1964 does not allow sexual orientation discrimination in employment because it is a form of sex discrimination. [5] [6]

On March 31, 2014, US District Court Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly ruled in the box of TerVeer v. Billington , that Peter TerVeer can sue for discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, which bans sex discrimination, claiming that he faced discrimination after his boss found out that he was gay. Title VII does not explicitly protect against sexual orientation discrimination, but Judge Kollar-Kotelly’s ruling states that it should not be used in the context of sexual orientation as “not consistent with acceptable gender roles.” [12]

On July 21, 2014, President Obama signed Executive Order 13672 , adding “gender identity” to the categories protected against discrimination in hiring in the federal civilian workforce and both “sexual orientation” and gender identity “to the categories protected against discrimination in hiring employment on the part of the federal government contractors and sub-contractors. [13] [14]

In 2017, the Trump administration , through the Department of Justice , Title VII to protect transgender employees from discrimination. [15]

A bill to ban employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity, the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA), was introduced repeatedly in the US Congress since 1994. Under the ENDA, it was illegal to discriminate against employees of their sexual orientation or gender identity. Unlike the Equality Act of 1974, the main focus of the ENDA was to end employment discrimination. In 1994, the ENDA only made it illegal for employers to discriminate against employees based on their sexual orientation. By 2007, discrimination based on gender identity has been added to the law. [16] In 2015, a broader bill, the Equality Act , was introduced in place of this.

State law

Current US LGBT employment discrimination laws.

  Sexual orientation and gender identity: all employment
  Sexual orientation: all employment, gender identity
  Sexual orientation: all employment
  Sexual orientation and gender identity: state employment only
  Sexual orientation: state employment only
  No state-level protection for LGBT employees

As of 2016, Michigan , Nebraska , Ohio , Florida , Arizona , Indiana , Pennsylvania , and Idaho are the only states with anti-discrimination laws to protect against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and expression. [17]

Pennsylvania became the first state in 1975. [18] Wisconsin became the first state of the art in 1982. [19] Indiana , in accordance with Hively v Ivy Tech Community College, also public and private sector employment discrimination based on sexual orientation. Minnesota became the first state of the social rights Act in 1993. [20] [21] Twenty-one states, the District of Columbia, and at least 255 cities and counties.

Twenty states, the District of Columbia , Guam , and Puerto Rico have a number of statutes that protect their sexual orientation and gender identitydiscrimination in private and public sector employment: California , [22] Colorado , [23] Connecticut , Delaware , [24] ] Hawaii , [25] Illinois , Iowa , Maine , Maryland , Massachusetts , Minnesota , [21] Nevada , [26] New Jersey , [27] New Mexico , New York , Oregon , Rhode Island , Utah , Vermont , and Washington . An additional two states, New Hampshire and Wisconsin , have statutes that only protect sexual orientation discrimination in the public and private sector.

Nine US states have an executive order, administrative order, or personal regulation prohibiting discrimination only in public employment based on sexual orientation or gender identity: Indiana , Kentucky , Michigan , [28] Montana , New Hampshire , [29] North Carolina , 28] 30] Pennsylvania and Virginia . An additional four states-have executive orders Prohibiting discrimination in public employment is based sexual orientation only: Alaska , Arizona , Missouri , [31] andOhio . The remaining sixteen states have been affected by these types of discrimination against LGBT communities.

The Courts of Appeals for the Sixth , Ninth , and Eleventh Circuits , covering Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, Tennessee; Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington; Alabama, Florida, and Georgia, found some protections in the 1964 Civil Rights Act for the category of gender identity. State courts and administrative agencies in California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Mass., New Jersey, New York, and Vermont have said that their state discrimination against discrimination. [32]

Chronological order

1972: No LGBT civil rights, the first local protections were enacted this year in Michigan (in East Lansing and Ann Arbor ). [33]
1973: District of Columbia: Sexual orientation protected in all employment [19]
1975: Pennsylvania: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [18]
1979: California: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [34]
1982: Wisconsin: Sexual orientation protected in all employment [19]
1983: New York: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [35]
Ohio:Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [36]
1985: New Mexico: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [37]
Rhode Island: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [38] [39]
Washington: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [40]
1987 : Oregon: Sexual orientation in the United States [41]
1988: Oregon: Sexual orientation no longer protected in state of employment [42]
1989: Massachusetts: Sexual orientation protected in all employment [19]
1990: Colorado: Sexual orientation [43]
1991: Connecticut: Sexual orientation protected in all employment [19]
Hawaii: Sexual orientation protected in all employment [19]
Minnesota: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [44]
New Jersey: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [45]
1992: California : Sexual orientation protected in all employment [19]
Louisiana: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [46]
New Jersey: Sexual orientation protected in all employment [19]
Vermont: Sexual orientation protected in all employment [19]
Oregon:Sexual orientation protected by state of employment [42]
1993: Sexual orientation and gender identity in all employment [19]
1995: Maryland: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [47]
Rhode Island: Sexual orientation protected in all employment [19]
1996: Illinois: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [48]
Louisiana: Sexual orientation no longer protected in state of employment [46]
1998: New Hampshire: Sexual Orientation Protected in All Employment [49]
1999: Iowa: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Protected in state employment[50]
Nevada: Sexual orientation protected in all employment [19]
Ohio: Sexual orientation no longer protected in state of employment [36]
2000: Delaware: Sexual orientation is protected in state of employment [51]
Iowa: Sexual orientation and gender identity no longer protected in state employment [50]
Montana: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [52]
2001: Indiana: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [53]
Maine: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [54]
Maryland: Sexual orientation protected in all employment 54] 19]
Rhode Island: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [19]
2002: Alaska: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [55]
New York: Sexual orientation protected in all employment [19]
2003: Arizona: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [56]
California: Gender identity protected in all employment [19]
Kentucky: Sexual orientation and gender identity protected in state employment [57]
Michigan Sexual orientation protected in state employment [58]
New Mexico: Sexual orientation and gender identity protected in all employment [19 ]
Pennsylvania: Gender identity protected in state of employment [59]
2004: Indiana: Gender identity protected en état emploi [60]
Louisiana: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [46]
2005: Illinois: Sexual orientation and gender identity protected in all employment [19] ]
: Sexual orientation and gender identity in all employment [19]
Virginia: Sexual orientation protected in state of employment [61]
2006: District of Columbia: Gender identity protected in all employment [19]
Kentucky:Sexual orientation and gender identity number along protected in state employment [62]
New Jersey: Gender identity protected in all employment [19]
Washington: Sexual orientation and gender identity protected in all employment [19]
2007: Colorado: Sexual orientation and gender identity protected in all employment [19]
Iowa: Sexual orientation and gender identity in all employment [19]
Kansas: Sexual orientation and gender identity in state of employment [63]
Maryland: Gender identity protected in state of employment [64]
Michigan:Gender identity protected in state employment [65]
Ohio: Sexual orientation and gender identity protected in state employment [36]
Oregon: Sexual orientation and gender identity protected in all employment [66]
Vermont gender identity protected in all employment [19]
2008: Kentucky: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Employment [67]
Louisiana: Sexual Guidance : Long-Term Care in Employment [68]
2009: Delaware: Sexual Orientation Protected in All-Employment [69]
Delaware: Gender Identity Protected in State of Employment [70] ]
New York: Gender identity protected in state employment [71]
2010: Virginia: Sexual orientation No. along protected [72]
Missouri Sexual orientation protected in state employment [73]
2011: Ohio: Gender identity number along protected in state employment [74]
Massachusetts: Gender identity protected in state of employment [75]
Hawaii: Gender identity protected dans tous emploi [76]
Nevada: Gender Identity Protected in All Employment [77]
Connecticut: Gender Identity Protected in All Employment [78]
2012: Massachusetts:Gender Identity Protected in All Employment [79]
2013: Puerto Rico: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Protected in All Employment [80]
Delaware: Gender Identity Protected in All Employment [81]
2014: Virginia: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity [82]
Maryland: Gender identity protected in all employment [83]
2015: Kansas: Sexual orientation and gender identity [84]
Utah: Sexual orientation and gender identity in all employment [85]
Guam:Sexual orientation and gender identity protected in all employment [86]
2016: Montana: Gender identity protected in state employment [87]
New York: Gender identity protected in all employment [88]
North Carolina: Sexual orientation and gender identity protected in state employment [ 30]
Louisiana: Sexual orientation and gender identity protected in state employment [89]
New Hampshire: Sexual orientation and gender identity protected in state employment [29]
Louisiana: Sexual orientation and gender identity number along protected in state employment [90]
2017: Indiana :Sexual orientation protected in all employment

Local laws

Main article: List of cities and counties in the United States offering an LGBT non-discrimination ordinance

Private sector policies

Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender employees, as measured by the Human Rights Campaign (HRC) through its Corporate Equality Index . The 2015 report found 366 businesses achieved a top rating of 100 percent. The report also found 89% of Fortune 500 businesses have non-discrimination policies on the basis of sexual orientation, while 66% of Fortune 500 companies have non-discrimination policies on the basis of gender identity. [91]Each year, the corporations and employees of the Out & Equal Regional Summit, have a conference that is designed to address the issues of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender employees.[92] There are opportunities for all-inclusive work-environment programs available through PFLAG . [93]

Widespread adoption of private workplace policies may be motivated by good business sense, the Williams Institute suggests. Its conclusion is based on a set of studies that show that they have a higher level of satisfaction, a higher level of satisfaction satisfaction with their co-workers, more self-esteem, and better physical health. [94]

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