Women in law

Women in Law Describes the role played by women in the legal profession and related occupations, qui includes lawyers (also called Expired barristers , advocates , solicitors , attorneys or legal counselors), paralegals , Prosecutors (also called Expired District Attorneys Golden Crown Prosecutors ), judges , legal scholars (including feminist legal theorists ), law professors and law schooldeans.

In the US, while women made up 34% of the legal profession in 2014, women are underrepresented in senior positions in all areas of the profession. There has been an increase in women in the field from the 1970s to 2010, but the increase has been seen. In the United States, 60% of attorneys are women; however, the percentage of female equity partners is 15%. [1] Women of color are even more underrepresented in the legal profession. [2] In private practice law firms, women make up just 4% of managing partners in the 200 biggest law firms. [2] In 2014 in Fortune 500corporations, 21% of the general counselswere only 10.5% were African-American, 5.7% were Hispanic, 1.9% were Asian-Pacific Islanders, and 0% were Middle Eastern. [2] In 2009, 21.6% of the law school Deans were women. Women held 27.1% of all federal and state positions in 2012. [2] In the US, “[w] omen of color were more likely than any other group to experience exclusion from other employees, racial and gender stereotyping.” [3] There are few women law school deans; the list includes Joan Mahoney , Barbara Aronstein Black at Columbia Law School , Elena Kagan at Harvard Law School , Kathleen Sullivan atStanford Law School , and the Hon. Kristin Booth Glenn and Michelle J. Anderson at the University of New York School of Law .

In Canada, while 37.1% of lawyers are women, “50% … said they felt their [law] firms were doing” poorly “or” very poorly “in their provision of flexible work arrangements. [3] As well, “… racializedwomen accounted for 16% of all lawyers under 30” in 2006 in Ontario and women. [3]

Representation and working conditions

United States

Main article: Women in the United States judiciary

The American Bar Association reported that in 2014, women made up 34% of the legal profession and men made up 66%. [2] In private practice law firms, women make up 20.2% of partners, 17% of equity partners and 4% of managing partners in the 200 largest law firms. [2] At the junior level of the profession, women make up 44.8% of associates and 45.3% of summer associates. [2] In 2014 in Fortune 500corporations, 21% of the general counsels were women and 79% were men. Of these 21% of women in general counsels, 81.9% were Caucasian, 10.5% were African-American, 5.7% were Hispanic, 1.9% were Asian-Pacific Islanders, and 0% were Middle Eastern. [2]In 2009, women were 21.6% of law school Deans, 45.7% of Associate, Vice-Deans or Deputy Deans and 66.2% of Assistant Deans. Women have better representation on law school Law Reviews . In the top 50 schools as Official by US World and News Reports in 2012-2013, women made up 46% of leadership positions and 38% of editor-in-chief positions. [2]

In 2012, women held 27.1% of all federal and state positions, while men held 73.9%. [2] In 2014, three of nine Supreme Court justices were women (33%), 33% of Circuit Court Appeals judges and 24% of federal court judges. [2]Women held 27% of all state judge positions.

During the 2012-2013 academic year, women made up 47% of Juris Doctor (JD) students, 25.8% of JD students. [3] In 2009 in the US, women made up 20.6% of law school deans. [3] In the US in 2014, 32.9% of all lawyers were women. [3] 44.8% of law firm associates Were women in 2013. [3] In the 50 “best law firms for women” in the US, “19% of the equity partners Were women, 29% of the nonequity partners Were women, and 42% of … counsels were women. [3]

A survey indicates that 96% of US law firms have their highest paid partner is male. [3] “Only 24.1% of all federal judgeships Were Held by women, and only 27.5% of state judgeships Were Held by women .: [3] Women lawyers ’employees Were” 83% of men lawyers’ salaries in 2014 “. [ 3]

Canada

In 2010 in Canada, “there were 22,261 practicing women lawyers and 37,617 practicing men lawyers.” [3] Canadian studies show that “50% of lawyers said they felt their firms were doing” poorly “or” very poorly “in their provision of flexible work arrangements. [3] More women lawyers found it “difficult to manage the demands of work and personal / family life” than men, with 75% of women reporting these challenges versus 66% of men associates. [3] A 2010 report on Ontario lawyers from 1971 to 2006 indicates that “… racialized women accounted for 16% of all lawyers under 30, compared to 5% of lawyers 30 and older in 2006. Visible minority lawyers accounted for 11.5% of all lawyers in 2006. Aboriginal lawyers accounted for 1.[3]

Women of color

Representation

The National Association for Law Placement (NALP) found that each year has declined to African-American associates- “from 4.66 percent to 3.95 percent.” [4] According to a November 2015 NALP press release, at just 2.55 percent of partners, minority women remain the most underrepresented group at partnership level. [4]

Treatment

In a 2008 survey, by the National Association of Women Lawyers (NAWL), the report found that women of color view their workplace as racially / ethnically stereotypical and exclusionary as a result. Women of color also felt that they have been taken into account and have been taken into account. [5]The America Bar Association Commission on Women in the Profession is a report which was a culmination of a study of the profession of women. In the study, women of color were given the opportunity to express their concern about the negative effects they face in the workplace and their lives. Women of color reported feelings of exclusion, isolation, and the fact that they were receiving more critical attention than their counterparts. [6]The American Bar Association Commission on Women in the American Bar Association Commission on Women in the Profession 2003, the Women of Color Research Initiative. In both law firms and corporate legal departments the findings were that women of color “receive less compensation than men and white women; are denied equal access to significant assignments, mentoring and sponsorship opportunities; receive fewer promotions; and have the highest rate of attrition. ” [4]There is a ripple effect within the treatment of women of color. Women of color are put at a Disadvantage early is making “the ultimate result That women of color Miss Opportunities to get better work assignments, more customer contact, and more billable hours.” [6] Women of color’s treatment dans le legal profession and Their feelings about this treatment have had an impact on the retention of women in the legal profession. Women of color leave law firms at a high rate, “Nearly 75 percent leave by Their fifth year, and Nearly 86 percent leave Before Their seventh year.” [5] These women are leaving Because They feel the only way to escape exclusion in the workplace is to leave the workplace.

Strategy

ABA’s Commission on Women in the United States of America, published in the United States of America in the United States of America other groups; This change is necessary for retention. Firms and corporations must initiate active mentorship programs and encourage organization-wide discussions about issues concerning women of color and constructive feedback is required. ” [6] After the release of this report, several law firms have been tried by the report. Law firms began initiatives that focus on recruiting women of color and well-being. Recruitment of minority women has been increased through the law firms working at the Southeast Minority Career Fair, MCCA / Vault Career Fair, Specialty Bar Association, Lavender Law Career Fair, Howard University School of Law North Carolina Central School of Law. ” [6]

Organizations

Center for Women in Law (US)

The Center for Women in Law is a US organization set up and funded by women, says it is “dedicated to the success of the entire spectrum of women in law … exchange”. [7] It combines theory with practice, addressing issues facing individuals and the profession as a whole. The Center is a Vision 2020 National Ally. [8] The Center was founded in 2008 by a group of women, many of whom were alumnae of the University of Texas School of Law, and many of whom graduated from the United States of America. The group has begun to discuss the issues faced by women lawyers and has become fully aware of the underlying causes of the barriers to advancement faced by women lawyers. The Austin Manifesto calls for specific, concrete steps to tackle the obstacles facing women in the legal profession today. The center holds summits and meetings on issues in the legal profession.

National Women’s Law Center (US)

The National Women’s Law Center (NWLC) is a United States non-profit organization founded in 1972 and based in Washington, DC The Center advocates for women’s rights through litigation and policy initiatives. It Began When female administrative staff and law students at the Center for Law and Social Policy Demanded That Their pay be Improved, que le center hire female lawyers, That They no follow be expected to serve coffee, and que le center create a women’s program. [9] Marcia Greenberger was hired in 1972 to start the program and Nancy Duff Campbell joined her in 1978. [9]In 1981, the two decided to turn the program into the separate National Women’s Law Center. [9] [10]

Women’s Legal Education and Action Fund (Canada)

Women’s Legal Education and Action Fund , referred to by the acronym LEAF, is the “… only national organization in Canada that exists to ensure the equality of women and girls under the law.” [11] Established on April 19, 1985, LEAF was formed in response to the enactment of Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms to ensure that there was fair and impartial interpretation of women’s Charter rights by the courts. LEAF performs legal research and intervenes in appellate and Supreme Court of Canadacases on women’s issues. LEAF has been an intervener in many significant decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada, particularly cases involving section 15 Charter challenges. In addition to its legal work, the LEAF also organizes the names of educators and educators, and educates them in the community. LEAF was created by founding mother Doris Anderson and other women. [12]

Women in Law and Litigation (India)

Women in Law and Litigation (WILL) was formed in India in 2014 by women lawyers, judges and legal professionals to deal with gender discrimination in the field of law. The litigating public prefers to deal with male lawyers. [13] The Society Was FORMED under the supervision of Supreme Court of India and the justice of Supreme Court of India, Ranjana Desai . [14]Will be trained to provide professional support, advocacy skills, and a platform for discussion Justice Hima Kohli of the High Court (Delhi) defined as the society would have a “way to give back to the system for senior lawyers and legal practitioners who have” reached high positions “. [13]

Feminist perspectives

Feminist legal theory , also known as feminist jurisprudence , is based on the belief that the law is fundamental in women’s historical subordination . [15] The project of feminist legal theory is twofold. First, feminist jurisprudence seeks to explain ways in which the law played a role in women’s subordinate status. Second, it is dedicated to changing women’s status through a reworking of the law and its approach to gender . In 1984 Martha Fineman founded the Feminism and Legal Theory Project at the University of Wisconsin Law School to explore the relationships between feminist theory, practice, and law, which has been instrumental in the development of feminist legal theory.

The liberal model of equality under the law liberal liberalization paradigm and the liberal liberalization of liberalization and the rights-based approach to law. The difference model emphasizes the significance of gender differencesand it should not be obscured by the law, but should be taken into account by it. The dominance model views the legal system as a mechanism for the perpetuation of male dominance. Feminists from the postmodern camp have deconstructed the notions of objectivity and neutrality, claiming that every perspective is socially situated. See equality feminism ,difference feminism , radical feminism , and postmodern feminism for context.

Notable scholars include:

  • Ruth Bader Ginsburg
  • Catharine MacKinnon
  • Martha Fineman
  • Mari Matsuda

Feminist philosophy of law

Feminist philosophy of law “… identifies the pervasive influence of patriarchy on legal structures, demonstrates its effects on the material condition of women and girls, and develops reforms to correct gender injustice, exploitation, or restriction.” [16] Feminist philosophy of law uses approaches drawn from “… feminist epistemology , relational metaphysics, feminist political theory , and other developments in feminist philosophy to understand how legal institutions enforce dominant masculinist norms.” [16] In the contemporary era, feminist philosophy of law also takes account of … ” human rights theory , postcolonial theoryCritical legal studies, critical race theory , queer theory , and disability studies . ” [16] As a feminist in general, there are many subtypes of feminist philosophy of law, including” … radical, socialist and Marxist, relational, cultural , postmodern, dominance, difference, pragmatist, and liberal approaches. ” [16] Feminist philosophers of law argues that” … law makes systemic bias (as opposed to personal biases of individuals) invisible, normal, entrenched, and thus difficult To identify and to oppose. ” [16] Feminist philosophers of law view laws as” … patriarchal, reflecting ancient and almost universal presumptions ofgender inequality . ” [16] Some of the legal issues Analyzed by feminist philosophers of law include wedding , reproductive rights (eg, Pertaining to laws is abortion ), the” commodification of the body “(as in sex work ) and violence contre women . [16]

Notable individuals

Supreme Court of Justice Sandra Day O’Connor (on the right).

United States

  • Annette Abbott Adams (1877-1956) was an American lawyer and judge who was the first woman at the Assistant Attorney General in the United States. [17] She obtained her law degree in 1912. Before beginning her legal career, she was one of the first female principals in California. In 1950, she went to California Supreme Court , becoming the first woman to sit on that court. [18]
  • Florence Ellinwood Allen (1884 – 1966) Was an American Judge Who Was the first woman to serve was state supreme court and one of the first two women to serve as a United States federal judge . She finished a master’s degree in Political Science from Western Reserve in 1908. [19] and took races in constitutional law . She wanted to do a law degree, but at that time, Western Reserve ‘s law school did not admit women. Allen attended the law school at the University of Chicago for a year, and then moved to New York University. In 1913, she got her law degree, graduating with honors. She became interested in politics, and more committed to the cause of women’s suffrage . She loved challenging local laws that limited women’s participation in the political process. She has gone to the Ohio Supreme Court. In 1919, she was appointed assistant attorney for Cleveland’s Cuyahoga County . By 1920, she was elected as a Common Pleas judge. In 1922, Allen was elected to the Ohio Supreme Court . She was appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit in 1934, making her one of the first women judges.
Sadie Tanner Alexander Mossell receiving her Ph.D. at the University of Pennsylvania.
  • Sadie Tanner Alexander Mossell (1898 – 1989), was the second African-American woman to receive a PhD in the United States , and the first woman to receive a degree from the University of Pennsylvania Law School . She was the first African-American woman to practice law in Pennsylvania. [20] She was the first African-American woman appointed Assistant City Solicitor for the City of Philadelphia.
  • Helen Elsie Austin (1908-2004) was an American attorney and US foreign service officer who was among the first African Americans admitted to the practice of law in the United States. [21] She received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1928 and a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1930 from the University of Cincinnati , becoming the first black woman to graduate from UC Law School. [22]Austin was on the staff of the Rocky Mountain Law Review and the Cincinnati Law Review . [23] In 1938 she received a Doctor of Laws degree from Wilberforce University. She was the first black woman to serve as Assistant Attorney General in Ohio (1937-38) and became legal advisor to the District of Columbia in 1939.
  • Elreta Melton Alexander-Ralston (1919-1998) was a black female American lawyer and judge in North Carolina at a time when there was only a handful of practicing female or black lawyers in that state. She was a trial attorney and District Court Judge . She has left largely unrecognized. She was the first black woman admitted to Columbia Law School in 1943 at the age of twenty-four. In 1947, Alexander became the first black woman to practice law in North Carolina. In 1968, Alexander became the first black judge elected in North Carolina and only the second black woman to be elected judge in the United States.
  • Bella Abzug (1920-1998), nicknamed “Battling Bella”, was an American lawyer , US Representative , social activist and leader of the Women’s Movement . In 1971, Abzug joined other leading feminists such as Gloria Steinem and Betty Friedan to found the National Women’s Political Caucus . She was appointed to the National Commission on the Observance of International Women’s Year 1977 National Women’s Conference by President Gerald Ford and President Jimmy Carter’s Commission on Women.
  • Joan Mahoney (born 1943) is a legal scholar and a dean of two law schools. She served as Dean at Wayne State University Law School in Detroit, Michigan , from 1998 to 2003, the first woman law school in Michigan and one of the United States to have held the deanship at two different law schools. Prior to her tenure as Dean at Wayne State, she served from 1994 to 1996 as Dean of Western New England College School of Law in Springfield, Massachusetts . (Women law school deans REMAIN has distinct minority; others-have included Barbara Aronstein Black at Columbia Law School , Elena Kagan at Harvard Law School, Kathleen Sullivan at Stanford Law School , and the Hon. Kristin Booth Glenn and Michelle J. Anderson at the University of New York School of Law ). She received her BA and MA degrees at the University of Chicago , attended by Wayne State Law School and received a Ph.D. from Wolfson College , University of Cambridgein England . A distinguished legal scholar, she has published widely on reproductive rights, constitutional law, legal history, comparative civil liberties, and bioethics.
  • Linda Addison (born 1951) is an American lawyer, business executive and author. Addison is Managing Partner, US of Norton Rose Fulbright , [24] chairs the US Management Committee, and serves on its Global Executive Committee. [25] Crain’s New York Business named Addison One of the “50 Most Powerful Women in New York” in 2015. [26] She is a founder and Past President of the Center for Women in Law , and co-chaired the New York State Bar Association’s Task Force on the Future of the Legal Profession. [27]
  • Anita L. Allen (born 1953) [28] is the Henry R. Silverman Professor of Law and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania Law School . She is also a senior fellow in the bioethics department of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine , a contributing faculty member in African studies , and an affiliated faculty member in the women’s studies program. In 2010 President Barack Obama named Allen to the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues. She is a Hastings Center Fellow. Allen holds a BA from New College of Florida . Allen received her MA andPh.D. in philosophy from the University of Michigan . Allen was one of the first African-American women to earn a PhD in Philosophy, along with Adrian Piper . She is the first African-American woman to hold both a JD and Ph.D. in philosophy. Allen received her JD from Harvard Law .

Canada

Canadian Clara Brett Martinbecame the first woman lawyer in the British Empire in 1897 after a lengthy dispute with the Law Society of Upper Canada , which argued-unsuccessfully-that only men could become lawyers.

At the end of the nineteenth century, women were able to participate, judge, judge, jurors, voters or legislators. Clara Brett Martin (1874 – 1923) became the first female lawyer in the British Empire in 1897 after a lengthy debate in which the Law Society of Upper Canada tried to prevent her from joining the legal profession. After graduating with a Bachelor of Artsin 1891, Martin submitted a petition to the Law Society to become a member. Her petition was rejected by the Society after contentious debate, with the Society ruling that it could only be admitted to the practice of law, because the Society’s statute stated that “person” could become a lawyer. At that time, women were not considered to be “persons” in Canada, from a legal perspective. WD Balfour sponsored a bill that provided that the word “person” in the Law Society’s statute should be interpreted to include females as well as males. Martin’s cause was also supported by Emily Stowe and Lady Aberdeen . With the support of the Premier, Oliver Mowat, legislation was passed on April 13, 1892, which permits the admission of women as solicitors.

Helen Kinnear QC (1894 – 1970) was a Canadian lawyer who was first elected to Canada. She Was the first woman in the British Commonwealth to be created a King’s Counsel and the first in the Commonwealth appointed to a county-court bench and the first female lawyer in Canada to Appear as counsel before the Supreme Court in Canada in 1935. Marie- Claire Kirkland-Casgrain CMCQ (born 1924) is a Quebec lawyer, judge and politician who was first elected to the Legislative Assembly of QuebecThe first woman appointed to the Cabinet Minister in Quebec, the first woman appointed acting first, and the first woman to serve the Quebec Provincial Court. Marlys Edwardh CM (born 1950) is a Canadian litigation and civil rights lawyer who was one of the first women to practice criminal law in Canada. [29] Roberta Jamieson C.M. is a Canadian lawyer and First Nations activist who was first elected in Canada, the first non-Parliamentarian to be appointed an ex officio member of a House of Commons committee and the first woman appointed asOntario Ombudsman . Delia Opekokew is a Cree woman from the Canoe Lake First Nation in Saskatchewan , Who Was the first First Nations lawyer admis to the Law Societies in Ontario and in Saskatchewan [30] as well as the first woman ever to run for the leadership of the Assembly of First Nations . Opekokew graduated from Osgoode Hall in 1977, and was admitted to the Bar of Ontario in 1979 and to the Bar of Saskatchewan in 1983. [30]

Beverley McLachlin PC (born 1943) The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada , the first woman to hold this position, and the longest serving Chief Justice in Canadian history. In her role as Chief Justice, she also serves as Deputy of the Governor General of Canada . When Governor General Adrienne Clarkson was hospitalized for a cardiac pacemaker operation on July 8, 2005, Chief Justice McLachlin served as the Deputy of the Governor General of Canada and performed the duties of the Governor General of the Administrator of Canada . [31]In her role as Administrator, she gave Royal Assent to the Civil Marriage Act , effectively legalizing same-sex marriage in Canada . [31]

Some Canadian lawyers have become notable for their achievements in politics, including Kim Campbell , Melanie Joly , Anne McLellan , Rachel Notley and Jody Wilson-Raybould .

Notable Canadian legal professionals include:

  • Louise Arbor CC GOQ (born 1947) was appointed a High Commissioner for Human Rights , to form the Supreme Court of Canada and the Court of Appeal for Ontario and to form the Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunals for the Training of Yugoslavia and Rwanda . Yugoslavian President Slobodan Milošević is a member of the Yugoslav Republic of Yugoslavia , and is one of the first prosecution of sexual assault under the articles of crimes against humanity .
  • Kim Campbell PC DC OBC QC (born 1947) is a Canadian politician, diplomat, lawyer and writer Who served as the 19th Prime Minister of Canada , from June 25, 1993 to November 4, 1993. Campbell Was the first , and to date, only female prime minister of Canada. She earned an LL.B. from the University of British Columbia in 1983.
  • Catherine Fraser (born 1947) was appointed Chief Justice of Alberta and Chief Justice of the Northwest Territories in 1992. She was named Chief Justice of the Nunavut Court of Appeal on March 24, 1999.
  • Jennifer Stoddart (born 1949) was the sixth Privacy Commissioner of Canada . In 1980 she received a license in civil law from McGill University . As a lawyer works to modernize regulations and remove barriers to employment based on gender or cultural differences. She led the Quebec Commission on Human Rights and Youth Rights Commission, the Canadian Human Rights Commission and the Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women. [32]
  • Martha Hall Findlay (born 1959) is a Canadian businesswoman, entrepreneur, lawyer and politician from Toronto , Ontario . She was elected to the Canadian House of Commons and the Liberal Party of Canada ‘s candidate in a Toronto riding.
  • Beth Symes CM [33] Queen’s University alumna [34] is a Canadian lawyer [35] who fought the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA, formerly known as Revenue Canada) all the way to the Supreme Court of Canada in order to deduct childcare expenses to be paid to a partner in the law firm. Symes practiced law full-time as a partner in a law firm from 1982-1985. [36]During which period she is employed in the care of her children, and deducted the wages paid to the family. Revenue Canada initially allowed these deductions, but later disallowed them. Symes objected to the re-assessment, but CRA denied the objection. Symes appealed to the Federal Court , which ruled that the expenses were valid and legitimate business expenses. The case was appealed to the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC), which ruled in Symes v. Canada [1993] that was not deductible as business expenses.
Jody Wilson-Raybould is Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada . She is the first Indigenous person to be named to this post.
  • Marie Henein is a Canadian lawyer . She is a partner of Henein Hutchison LLP, a law firm in Toronto . Henein has developed a reputation in Toronto as one of the most “respected and feared criminal lawyers in the country.” [31] The National Post called “the highest profile criminal defense lawyer in the country.” [37] In 2011, Canadian Lawyer magazine named her one of the “Top 25 Most Influential” saying she was “one of the most sought-after criminal lawyers in the country” and “a key go-to lawyer for high-profile accused in Toronto. ” [38]
  • Anne McLellan PC OC AOE (born 1950) is a Canadian lawyer, academic and politician. She was a cabinet minister in the Liberal Governments of Jean Chrétien and Paul Martin , serving as Deputy Prime Minister of Canada . On February 26, 2015, She Was appointed chancellor of Dalhousie University [39] effective May 25. [40] She was a professor of law at the University of New Brunswick and the University of Alberta Faculty of Law Where She served at various times as associate dean and dean. In 2009, McLellan was appointed an officer of the Order of Canada for the service of a politician and law professor, and for her contributions as a community volunteer.
  • Rachel Notley (born 1964) is a Canadian politician and the 17th and current Premier of Alberta , since 2015. Notley’s career before politics focused on labor law, with a specialty in workers’ compensation advocacy and workplace health and safety issues.
  • Melanie Joly PC MP (born 1979) is a Canadian lawyer , public relations expert, and politician. She is a Liberal member of the House of Commons of Canada representing Ahuntsic-Cartiervilleand also serves the Minister of Canadian Heritage in the Cabinet , headed by Justin Trudeau .
  • Jody Wilson-Raybould PC MP (born 1971) is a Kwakwaka’wakw Canadian politician and the Liberal Member of Parliament for the riding of Vancouver Granville . She was sworn in as Minister of Justice of Canada on November 4, 2015; the first Indigenous person to be named to that post. Before entering into a federal Crown policy, she was a provincial Crown prosecutor, BC Treaty Commissioner and Regional Chief of the BC Assembly of First Nations . She earned a degree from the University of British Columbia Faculty of Law .

Further reading

  • Bartlett, K., 1990. “Feminist Legal Methods,” Harvard Law Review , 1039 (4): 829-888.
  • Bartlett, K. and R. Kennedy (eds.), 1991. Feminist Legal Theory , Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Chamallas, M. 2003. Introduction to Feminist Legal Theory , 2nd edition, Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Law & Business.
  • Frug, MJ, 1992. “Sexual Equality and Sexual Difference in American Law,” New England Law Review , 26: 665-682.
  • Gould, C., 2003. “Women’s Human Rights & the US Constitution,” in S. Schwarwenbach and P. Smith (eds.), ” Women and the United States Constitution , New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 197-219.
  • MacKinnon, C. , 2006. Are Women Human? , Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Olsen, F. (ed.), 1995. Feminist Legal Theory , NY: New York University Press.
  • Manji (eds.), International Law: Modern Feminist Approaches , Oxford and Portland, OR: Hart Publishing.
  • Scales, A., 2006. Legal Feminism: Activism, Lawyer and Legal Theory , New York: New York University Press.
  • Schwarzenbach, S. and P. Smith (eds.), 2003. Women & the United States Constitution , New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Sen, A., 1995. “Gender Inequality & Theories of Justice,” in M. Nussbaum and J. Glover (eds.) 1995, pp. 259-273.
  • Smith, P. 2005. “Four Themes in Feminist Legal Theory: Difference, Dominance, Domesticity & Denial,” in M. Golding and W. Edmundson, Philosophy of Law & Legal Theory , Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 90-104.
  • – (ed.), 1993. Feminist Jurisprudence , New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Stark, B., 2004. “Women, Globalization, & Law,” Pace International Law Review , 16: 333-356.

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