Employee motivation

Employee motivation , ie methods for motivating employees , is an intrinsic and internal drive to the necessary effort and action towards work-related activities. It has-been Broadly defined as the “psychological strengths That determines the management of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of stress and a person’s level of persistence .” [1] Also, “Motivation can be thought of as the willingness to expend energy to achieve a goal or a reward. Motivation at work has been defined as ‘the sum of the processes that influence the arousal, direction, and maintenance of behaviors relating to work settings’. ” [2]Motivated employees are essential to the success of an organization as they are more productive at the workplace. [3]

Motivational techniques

Motivation is the impulse that an individual has in a job or activity to reaching an end goal. There are many theories of how to work better, but they are more likely to work well.


Fredrick Winslow Taylor was one of the first theorists to attempt to understand employee motivation. His theory of scientific maneuvering, also referred to as Taylorism, analyzes the productivity of the workforce. Taylor’s basic theory of motivation, is that workers are motivated by money. He viewed employees not as individuals; in doing so in the process of doing things, providing them with the best tools and paying them based on the best way to motivate them. Taylor’s theory developed in the late 1890’s and can still be seen today in industrial engineering and manufacturing industries.

Hawthorne Effect

In the mid 1920’s another theorist, Elton Mayo , began studying the workforce. His study of the Hawthorne Works , leads him to his discovery of the Hawthorn effect. The Hawthorne effect is the idea that people change their behavior as a reaction to being observed. Mayo found that employee’s productivity increased when they knew they were being watched. They also found that they were more motivated when they were allowed to work on their working conditions. Mayo’s research and motivational theories were the start of the Human Relations School of Management.

Job design

The design of an employee’s job can have a significant effect on their job motivation. Job design includes designing a job that is both effective and efficient. [4] Four approaches to job design are:

  1. Job Simplification: The goal of this job is to standardize and specialize tasks. [5] This approach does not always lead to increased motivation because the jobs can become more over time.
  2. Job Enlargement : The goal of this job design is to combine tasks to give the employee a greater variety of work. [5]
  3. Job Rotation : The goal of this job. [5]
  4. Job Enrichment : The key to job design employee motivation, this approach aims to enhance the job by building the employee through motivational factors. [5]

Several studies validate the effectiveness of using job design techniques to increase employee motivation. A study conducted by Campion and Thayer [6] used a job design quiz to determine how job designs fostering motivation affected employees. Campion and Thayer [6] found that jobs with more motivational features and lower well-being, and fewer health complaints. The study found aussi That jobs scoring high on the subscale of the motivational questionnaires contained Who Were employees more satisfied and motivated, HAD A Higher rating Pertaining to job performance , and HAD Fewer absences. [6] Hackman. [7]a study of the field of work and improvement of the field of work. The study’s results can be improved to improve the quality of the service provided, increase the quantity of work, and increase work satisfaction and motivation. [7] Dunham, [8] who was determined to be a relationship between job design and job requirements and compensation requirements. Dunham [8]were developed by the employer and expanded by the employer. The study found that these organizations have not been increased in their complexity, nor have they been increased. [8]


Using rewards as motivators divides employee motivation into two categories: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation . Intrinsic rewards are internal, psychological rewards such as a sense of accomplishment or doing something because it makes one feel good. Extrinsic rewards are rewarded with compliments, bonuses, or trophies. This applies to Douglas McGregor’s Theory Scientific that formed Theory X [9], which applies to the extrinsic wants of employees. The basis for motivation is supervision structure and money. Scientific Theory is based on the fact that they are not necessarily so forced to do their work, and that they are motivated by the results. reward [9] . With this theory different factors can be used to enhance the intrinsic benefit that employees receive at their jobs. ”

Many studies have been conducted in the field of conflicting outcomes. Pierce, Cameron, Banko, and So [10] conducted a study to examine how extrinsic rewards affect people’s intrinsic motivation. Pierce et al. [10] founding a higher level of performance, which is more difficult to achieve, and to increase in terms of motivation and motivation. Participants who have not been rewarded for having a constant level of performance is less intrinsic motivation. [10]Another study that examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation was conducted by Wiersma. [11] Wiersma [11] conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the inconsistent results of past studies. The meta-analysis by Wiersma [11] concluded that when they are extrinsically rewarded by chance, they reduce intrinsic motivation. This result is supported when task behavior is measured during a free-time period. [11] However, it is not supported when performance is measured when the extrinsic reward is in effect. [11] Wiersma [11] also found that these results can not be generalized to all situations. A study conducted by Earn [12]also reviewed the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Earn [12] is the subject of extrinsic rewards, a person’s intrinsic motivation based on the subject of locus of control. Earn [12] found that increased intrinsic motivation for subjects with an external locus of control. The study also found that the controlling aspect of the extrinsic reward was made relevant by making a certain amount of performance. [12]

Intrinsic rewards: Job Characteristics Model

See also: Work motivation and Job satisfaction

The Job Characteristics Model (JCM), as designed by Hackman and Oldham. They show that any job can be described as: [13] [14]

  1. Skill Variety – the degree to which the job requires different skills and talents
  2. Task Identity – the degree to which the job has contributed to a clearly identifiable larger project
  3. Task Significance – the degree to which the job affects the lives or work of other people
  4. Autonomy – the degree to which the employee has independence, freedom and discretion in carrying out the job
  5. Task Feedback – the degree to which the employee is provided with a clear, specific, detailed, actionable information about the effectiveness of their performance

The JCM links to the core job. This forms the basis of this “employee growth-need strength.” The core dimensions listed above can be combined into a single predictive index, called the Motivating Potential Score .

Employee participation

1. Increase employee participation by implementing quality control “circles”. Quality control circles involve a group of five to ten problem solving employees that come together to solve work-related problems such as reducing costs, solving quality problems, and improving production methods. [15] Other benefits of quality control circles include an improved employee-management relationship, increased individual commitment, and more opportunities for employee expression and self-development. [15]

A study by Marks et al. [15] focused on assessing the effect of having participated in the field of participation, decision making, and group communication. Although group communication has been influential, communication through the organization has been used in the past. The results of this study can provide more information and help to improve motivation.

2. Increase motivation through employee participation by using open-book management. Open-book management is a company shares important financial data with employees. [16] Sharing the information empowers employees by putting trust into them. [16] Employees become personally and flexibly involved with the organization beyond just doing their assigned tasks, which increases their motivation and production [16] Open book management is a four-step process. [16]The first step involves employees with their employees. Employees need to know the company, as a whole, is doing financially. Next, employers must teach their employees how to read and interpret the financial data. Employees can look at the data as a company gives them; however, to understand the data, they must know how to interpret the numbers. Third, employees have to be empowered to make necessary changes and decisions for the success of the organization. Employers should treat their employees as partners. The last step involves employees paying their employees a fair share of profits through bonuses and incentives. Bonus numbers must be attached to numbers that can be used regularly and can influence the financial data. [16] With these steps in mind, the friction between employees and between employee and management can be drastically reduced.

Four factors must exist for any employee participation program to be successful: [17]

  • Have a profit-sharing or win-sharing plan where both the employer and employee benefit
  • Implement a long-term employment relationship to instill job security
  • Make a concerted effort to build and maintain group cohesiveness
  • Provide protection of the individual employee’s rights

Quality-of-work-life programs

Work-life balance is an employee’s perception of how to maintain a good balance between personal and family, and is maintained with minimal conflict. [18] Employers can use work-life balance as a motivational technique by implementing quality-of-work-life programs. Examples of such programs include flextime , wellness workplace , and family support. Flexible work schedules can be used to allow them to work as often as they can. [19] Sometimes employers use the term flexible when they choose to work. [20]A wellness program can involve having an exercise facility, offering counseling, or even having smoking programs. [19] Family support programs involving help with parenting, childcare, and some programs. [19]

They are often identified with the roles of mother, wife, friend, and daughter. [18] The Sloan Foundation found that women would like to work in the United States. [21] A study conducted by the Alliance for Work-Life Surveyed employees to find out the type of workplace flexibility they say they would like to use in the following year. [22] Burrus et al. [22] found that 71 percent of people want an opportunity to adjust their schedule, 57 percent want to work from their location, 73 percent want to make their work-life flexibility, and 12 percent want to work fewer hours.

Employee Engagement

A motivated employee is engaged in their workplace. Employee engagement is an important part of an organization’s success. Research has found that organizations have increased their participation in organizations with disengaged employees. [23] Shareholder returns, operating income, and revenue growth. [23] In addition, employee engagement is linked to lower absenteeism within an organization. [23] Employers who practice employee motivation and engagement techniques in their organization will likely see an increase in overall business performance.

Motivational theories

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Abraham Maslow viewed motivation as being based on a hierarchy of needs , of which a person can not move to the next level of needs without satisfying the previous level. Maslow’s hierarchy starts at the lowest level of needs, basic physiological needs. [24] Basic physiological needs include air , water , and food . Who Employers pay at least a minimum living wage will meet thesis basic employee needs [25] The next level of needs is Referred to as safety and security needs. [24]This level is one of the most important things in the world. Employers can meet these needs, and they are safe from physical, verbal and / or emotional hazards and have a sense of job security . [25] The third level of social needs and affiliation [24] This is the need to be social, have friends, and feel like one belongs and is loved. Implementing employee participation programs can help fulfill the need to belong. [25] Rewards such as acknowledging an employee’s contributions can also satisfy these social and love needs. [25] The fourth level on the hierarchy is esteem needs. [24]This level is described as being good and knowing that their life is meaningful, valuable, and has a purpose. Employers should use the job design technique to create jobs that are important to and cherished by the employee. [25] These first needs, Maslow called D-Needs (deficient).

The last level Maslow is called self-actualization . [24] Maslow called this the B-Need (being). This level refers to people reaching their potential states of well-being. An employer who will do this job. [25] “Maslow further expanded self-actualization into four needs: cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualization, and self-transcendence .” [26]

Herzberg’s two-factor theory

Frederick Herzberg developed the two-factor theory of motivation based on satisfiers and dissatisfiers. Satisfied are motivators associated with job satisfaction while dissatisfied are motivators associated with hygiene or maintenance. [24] Satisfiers include achievement, responsibility, advancement, and recognition. They are all intrinsically motivated by the fact that they are directly related to the performance of their work. [24] Dissatisfied are extrinsic motivators based on the work environment, and include a company’s policies and administration such as supervision, peers, working conditions, and salary. [24]For the sake of dissatisfaction but not for satisfaction. [24]Herzberg also believed that the greatest potential for increased performance. [24] Work-life programs are a form of satisfaction that recognizes the employee’s life in the workplace. Job satisfaction is a job in the job. A dissatisfied with employees at the workplace. [27] Colleagues play an important role in the workplace as they are all interacting daily. Forming high quality relationships with peers can extrinsically improve employee motivation.[27]

Vroom’s expectancy theory

The expectancy theory of motivation was established by Victor Vroom with the belief that motivation is based on the expectation of desired outcomes. [24] The theory is based on four concepts: valence, expectancy, instrumentality and force. [24] Valencia is the attractiveness of potential rewards, outcomes, or incentives. Expectancy is a person’s belief that they will be able to reach the desired outcome. Instrumentality is the belief that a strong performance will be well rewarded. Force is a person’s motivation to perform. [24] In general, people will work hard when they think that it is likely to lead to desired organizational rewards. [28]If they believe the goal is worthwhile and if they perceive that their efforts will contribute to the achievement of that goal. [2]

Force = Valencia x Expectancy x Instrumentality

Locke’s goal theory

As Human Relations Management Takes Into Larger Motivation and Attendance to Individuals Becomes Larger Concern for Employers. Increasing intrinsic motivation could be achieved through the Goal Setting Theory by Edwin A. Locke . Employers who set realistic and challenging goals for their employees. [29] By allowing employees to engage in their job, and achieve satisfaction when reaching a goal it is possible to achieve new growth and yield superior performance. [29]The theory is logical because it is more difficult to achieve goals. Once in the world, they can also develop goal commitment, where they are more likely to stick to jobs until they are finished. [29]

Employees who work alongside their employers in the goal-setting process have the intrinsic benefit of participating in decisions, which can lead to higher motivation as they are empowered in their workplace. [30] As employees reach their personal goals, management can reinforce those efforts by showing their success.

Locke and Latham Five Goal Setting Priciples 

Dr. Gary Latham collaborated with Edwin Locke to expand upon his Goal Setting Theory of Motivation with Five Key Principles. [31] These principles are closely related to the SMART goal setting strategy and to the definition of objectivity and achievability. The five key principles are:

  1. Clarity: Clear goals are measurable and not ambiguous which gives clear definition to the expectations of the objective.
  2. Challenge: People are often motivated by the importance of success.
  3. Commitment: There is a direct correlation between employees and their objectives and their boundaries.
  4. Feedback: Consistency feedback on the objective completion process provides clarity of expectations, ability to adjust difficulty, and the opportunity to gain recognition.
  5. Complexity: Highly motivational, motivational, but it is important that the goal does not overwhelm the individual to maintain motivation

See also

  • Work motivation
  • Suggestion system
  • Employee offboarding


  1. Jump up^ Jones, Gareth R .; George, Jennifer M. (2008). Contemporary Management .
  2. ^ Jump up to:a Moran B , Barbara B. (2013). Library and Information Center Management . Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited.
  3. Jump up^ ways to improve employee motivation , retrieved 25 August 2017
  4. Jump up^ Erven, Bernie. “Designing Jobs that Motivate and Challenge Employees”. Retrieved 9 April 2012 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:d[higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/schermerhorn/…/ch06.ppt|publisher=Wiley]
  6. ^ Jump up to:c Campion, MA; Thayer, PW (1985). “Development and field evaluation of an interdisciplinary measure of job design”. Journal of Applied Psychology. pp. 29-43.
  7. ^ Jump up to:b Hackman, JR (1980). “Word redesign and motivation”. Professional Psychology. pp. 445-455.
  8. ^ Jump up to:c Dunham, RB (1977). “Relationships of perceived job design characteristics to job performance requirements and job value”. Journal of Applied Psychology. pp. 760-763.
  9. ^ Jump up to:b 1943-, Robbins, Stephen P.,. Organizational behavior . Judge, Tim. (Edition 16 ed.). Boston. ISBN  9780133507645 . OCLC  848756214 .
  10. ^ Jump up to:c Pierce, WD; Cameron, J .; Banko, KM; So, S. (2003). “Positive effects of rewards and performance standards on intrinsic motivation”. The Psychology Record. pp. 561-579.
  11. ^ Jump up to:f Wiersma, UJ (1992). “The effects of extrinsic rewards in intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. pp. 101-114.
  12. ^ Jump up to:d Earn, B. (1982). “Intrinsic motivation as a function of extrinsic financial rewards and subjects” locus of control “. Journal of Personality. pp. 360-373.
  13. Jump up^ JR Hackman and GR Oldham. Work Redesign. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc., 1980; pp 78-80.
  14. Jump up^ Katz, Ralph. Motivating Technical Professionals Today. IEEE Engineering Management Review , Vol. 41, No. 1, March 2013, pp. 28-38
  15. ^ Jump up to:c Marks, Mitchell L .; Marks, ML; Hackett, EJ; Mirvis, PH & Grady Jr., JF (1986). “Employee participation in a quality circle program: Impact on quality of work life, productivity, and absenteeism”. Journal of Applied Psychology . 71 (1): 61-69. doi : 10.1037 / 0021-9010.71.1.61 .
  16. ^ Jump up to:e Aggarwal, Raj; Aggarwal, R. & Simskins, BJ (2001). “Open-boon management – Optimizing human capital”. Business Horizons . 44 (5): 5-13. doi : 10.1016 / S0007-6813 (01) 80055-0 .
  17. Jump up^ Levine, DI (1990). “Participation, productivity, and the firm’s environment”. California Management Review . 32 (4): 86-100.
  18. ^ Jump up to:b Soo Jung Jang, RP (2010). “The interaction effects of scheduling control and work-life balance programs on job satisfaction and mental health”. International Journal of Social Welfare. pp. 135-143.
  19. ^ Jump up to:c “Work / Life” . Opm.gov . Retrieved 2013-11-26 .
  20. Jump up^ Stroh, KS (2007). “Flexible schedules make powerful perks”. Flextime: Myth or Reality ?. pp. 12-14.
  21. Jump up^ Seitel, S. (2006). “Work family: Trend report”. The Work-Life Clearinghouse. pp. 1-2.
  22. ^ Jump up to:b Burrus, D .; Burud, S .; Klun, S .; Lingle, K .; Roundtree, L .; Yost, CW (2009). “Flexible rightsizing as a cost-effective alternative to layoff: A cost / benefit analysis tool and guide for human resources, organizational and business leader”. Allience for Work-Life Progress. pp. 1-9.
  23. ^ Jump up to:c Saks, Alan M. (2017-04-01). “Translating Employee Engagement Research into Practice” . Organizational Dynamics . SPECIAL ISSUE: EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT. 46 (2): 76-86. doi : 10.1016 / j.orgdyn.2017.04.003 .
  24. ^ Jump up to:m Skemp-Arlt, KM; Toupence, R. (2007). “The administrator’s role in employee motivation”. Coach & Athletic Director. pp. 28-34.
  25. ^ Jump up to:f Silberstein, Shula Asher. “The hierarchy of needs for employees” . Retrieved 10 April 2012 .
  26. Jump up^ D’Souza, J .; Gurin, M. (2016). “The universal significance of Maslow’s concept of self-actualization”. The Humanistic Psychologist . 44 (2).
  27. ^ Jump up to:b Damij, Nadja; Levnajic, Zoran; Rejec Skrt, Vesna; Suklan, Jana. “What Motivates Us for Work” . PLOS one . Retrieved 8 November 2017.
  28. Jump up^ Skemp-Arlt, KM; Toupence, R. (2007). “The administrator’s role in employee motivation”. Coach & Athletic Director. p. 30.
  29. ^ Jump up to:c Miner, John B. (2015-03-26). Organizational Behavior 1: Essential Theories of Motivation and Leadership . Routledge. ISBN  9781317463580 .
  30. Jump up^ Sridevi, Sandhya (December 2010). “Employee Engagement: The Key to Improving Performance” . International Journal of Business and Management . 5 – via ccsenet.
  31. Jump up^ “Locke’s Goal Setting Theory: Understanding SMART Goal Setting” . March 24, 2013 . Retrieved 2017-11-11 .

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *