Job attitude

job attitude is a set of evaluations of one’s job that is one’s feelings toward, beliefs about, and attachment to one’s job. [1] Overall job attitude can be conceptualized in two ways. Either an affective job satisfaction and a general or subjective feeling about a job, [2] or a composite of objective cognitive assessments of specific job facets, such as pay, conditions, opportunities and other aspects of a particular job. [3] Employees evaluate their advancement opportunities by observing their jobs, their occupation, and their employ. [1]


Research demonstrates that interrelationship and complexity underlie what would seem to be the only defined term job attitudes. The long history of research is not commonly agreed upon. [1] There are both cognitive and affective aspects, which need not be in correspondence with each other. [4] Job attitude should not be confused with the broader term attitude , because it is defined by the attitude of a particular entity. . [1]In the definition above, the term “job” involves one’s current position, one’s work or one’s occupation, and one’s employ as its entity. However, one’s attitude toward his / her work does not necessarily have one’s own attitudes towards his / her employer, and these two factors often diverge. [4]



Global job attitudes are attitudes towards a job through the organization, the working environment, the affective disposition, the aggregate measures of job characteristics and the social environment. They depend on the totality of work conditions. In fact, job attitudes are also closely associated with global measures of life satisfaction. Scales such as “Faces” enable researchers to interpret overall satisfaction with work. The Job in General Scale focuses on the cognitive perspective (rather than applied) of the effects of job attitudes. A variety of job attributes are associated with different levels of satisfaction within global job attitudes. [1]

Other types

  1. Job Involvement: Identifying with one’s job and actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth. [5]
  2. Organizational Commitment: Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization. [5]
  3. Perceived Organizational Support (POS): The degree to which employees feel the organization cares about their well-being. [5]
  4. Employee Engagement: An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the organization. [5]


Affective job satisfaction is a singular constructing an overall emotional feeling about a job as a whole. [6] [7] Affective job satisfaction is Measured with items Addressing the extent to qui Individuals and subjectively like emotively Their job overall, [8] not a composite of how Individuals for Assessment cognitively two or more specific aspects of Their job. citation needed ] The 4-item Brief Index of Affective Job Satisfaction has been developed to produce a purely emotional affective measure of overall affective job satisfaction. [2]

Job facet satisfaction

Job facet satisfaction refers to specific job aspects, such as salary, benefits, and relationships with co-workers. [9]

  • Satisfaction with work: The emotional state of a worker while working. Although a person may self-identify in terms of profession, for example a doctor, lawyer or engineer, it is their well being at work which is significant in characterizing job attitude. Satisfaction with work can be analyzed, cognitively (my work is challenging) and behaviorally (I am reliable). [9]
  • Supervision: Supervision has a significant relationship with productivity. However, supervision can only be taken positively with acceptance. Therefore, it is important to ensure a positive attitude to work. [10]
  • Co-workers: Co-workers are a common source of job stress. [11]
  • And orientation, compensation and advancement as a positive reinforcement, demonstrating that the worker is valued and reinforcing loyalty. [12]

Influencing factors

Emotional exhaustion

Interpersonal conflict affects job attitudes: cut-throat competition resulted in a bitter relationship with co-workers. The exacerbated stress leads to emotional exhaustion, and this negatively affects job attitude. [13]


Subordinates’ job attitude, such as job satisfaction and turnover intention, does not influence ‘satisfaction with the supervisor’. The supervisor’s leadership strongly influences the subordinate’s “satisfaction with the supervisor”. Personality traits of the supervisor, in particular, agreeableness, extroversion and emotional stability, are positively related to subordinate attitudes and have a greater effect on subordinate satisfaction than general work-related attitudes. [14] Supervisor agreeableness and emotional stability were positively related to employee satisfaction with the supervisor, and extroversion was negatively correlated with turnover intentions. [14]

Resulting behaviors


Employees who have a better understanding of cyber behavior and behavior in cyber loafing behavior. [15] Employees who perceive the work environment as supportive and motivating to engage in cyber loafing; conversely, groups within the company who engage in social loafing using the internet create a norm of such behavior. [15] However, there was only a limited relationship between non-internet loafing behavior and cyber loafing. Chit-chatbetween co-workers can be a sign of productivity and a sign of wasting time. [15]

Task performance

Companies whose workers have positive attitudes. [5] Job attitude influences performance, and not performance that influences attitude. [16]

Withdrawal vs. counterproductivity

Human relations variables and group norms are variables of job management that are directly related to turnover. Identification with the organization was directly related to turnover, norms had an indirect relationship with turnover. [17]


  1. ^ Jump up to:e Judge Timothy A .; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D. (2012). “Job Attitudes”. Annual Review of Psychology . 63 (1): 341-67. doi : 10.1146 / annurev-psych-120710-100511 . PMID 22129457 .
  2. ^ Jump up to:b Thompson, Edmund R .; Phua, Florence TT (2012). “A Brief Index of Affective Job Satisfaction”. Group & Organization Management . 37 (3): 275-307. doi : 10.1177 / 1059601111434201 .
  3. Jump up^ Harrison, David A .; Newman, Daniel A .; Roth, Philip L. (2006). “How Important Are Job Attitudes?” Meta-Analytic Comparisons of Integrative Behavioral Outcomes and Time Sequences. Academy of Management Journal . 49 (2): 305-25. doi : 10.5465 / AMJ.2006.20786077 . JSTOR 20159765 .
  4. ^ Jump up to:b Schleicher Deidra J .; Watt, John D .; Greguras, Gary J. (2004). “Reexamining the Job Satisfaction-Performance Relationship: The Complexity of Attitudes”. Journal of Applied Psychology . 89 (1): 165-77. doi : 10.1037 / 0021-9010.89.1.165 . PMID 14769129 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:e Steers, Richard M .; Porter, Lyman W. (1991). Motivation and work behavior . New York: McGraw-Hill . ISBN 978-0-07-060956-3 . page needed ]
  6. Jump up^ Kalleberg, Arne L. (1977). “Work Values ​​and Job Rewards: A Theory of Job Satisfaction”. American Sociological Review . 42 (1): 124-43. doi :10.2307 / 2117735 . JSTOR 2117735 .
  7. Jump up^ Moorman, Robert H. (1993). “The Influence of Cognitive and Affective Based Job Satisfaction Measures on the Relationship Between Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior”. Human Relations . 46 (6): 759-76. doi : 10.1177 / 001872679304600604 .
  8. Jump up^ Spector, Paul E. (1997). Job Satisfaction: Application, Assessment, Causes, and Consequences . Advanced Topics in Organizational Behavior. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN 978-0-7619-8923-3 . [ page needed ]
  9. ^ Jump up to:b Redmond, Brian Francis; Bredemeier, Jennifer Lynne (March 30, 2012). “Job Satisfaction” . Penn State . Retrieved July 25, 2012 . unreliable source? ]
  10. Jump up^ Adjabeng, Senyo M. (2012). “EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES !! Leadership, Supervision, and Discipline” . Corporate Aims Services . Retrieved July 25, 2012 . [ unreliable source? ]
  11. Jump up^ Beehr, Terry A. (1981). “Work-Role Stress and Attitudes Toward Co-Workers”. Group & Organization Management . 6 (2): 201-10. doi :10.1177 / 105960118100600206 .
  12. Jump up^ Tosi, Henry L .; Mero, Neal P. (2003). The fundamentals of organizational behavior: what managers need to know . Wiley-Blackwell . p. 50. ISBN 978-1-4051-0074-8 .
  13. Jump up^ Jaramillo, Fernando; Mulki, Jay Prakash; Boles, James S. (2011). “Workplace Stressors, Job Attitude, and Job Behaviors: Is Interpersonal Conflict the Missing Link?”. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management . 31 (3): 339-56. doi : 10.2753 / PSS0885-3134310310 .
  14. ^ Jump up to:b Smith, Mark Alan; Canger, Jonathan M. (2003). “Effects of Supervisor” Big Five “Personality on Subordinate Attitudes”. Journal of Business and Psychology . 18 (4): 465-81. doi : 10.1023 / B: JOBU.0000028447.00089.12 . JSTOR 25092875 .
  15. ^ Jump up to:c Liberman, Benjamín; Seidman, Gwendolyn; McKenna, Katelyn YA; Buffardi, Laura E. (2011). “Employee job attitudes and organizational characteristics as predictors of cyberloafing”. Computers in Human Behavior . 27 (6): 2192-9. doi : 10.1016 / j.chb.2011.06.015 .
  16. Jump up^ Riketta, Michael (2008). “The causal relationship between job attitudes and performance: A meta-analysis of panel studies”. Journal of Applied Psychology . 93 (2): 472-81. doi : 10.1037 / 0021-9010.93.2.472 . PMID 18361647 .
  17. Jump up^ Furukawa, Hisataka (1976). “Predicting Turnover of Employees by Job Attitude: Combined Use of Hierarchical Cluster and Path Analysis”. The Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology . 16 (1): 8-16. doi :10.2130 / jjesp.16.8 .

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