Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction has been defined in many different ways. Some believe it is simply in the nature of a job, in other words, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision. [1] Others believe that it is not as simple as this definition suggests that multidimensional psychologicalresponses to one’s job are involved. [2] Researchers have noted that job satisfaction measures vary in the extent to which they measure feelings about the job (emotional job satisfaction). [3] or cognitions about the job (cognitive job satisfaction). [4]

Definitional issues

The concept of job satisfaction has been developed in many ways by many different researchers and practitioners. One of the most widely used definitions of locke (1976), who defines job satisfaction as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences” (1304). [5] Others have defined it as simply how happy is an individual with his or her job; whether he or she likes the job or not. [6] Whether at the level of the job or at the level of the job, it is assessed at the level of the job. [1] Spector (1997) [1]14 common facets: Appreciation, Communication, Coworkers, Fringe benefits, Job conditions, Nature of the work, Organization, Personal growth, Policies and procedures, Promotion opportunities, Recognition, Security, and Supervision.

Hulin and Judge (2003), who have noted that job satisfaction includes multidimensional psychological responses to an individual’s job, and that these personal responses are cognitive (evaluative), affective (or emotional) , and behavioral components. [2] Job satisfaction scales in the extent to which they assess the affective feelings about the job or the cognitive assessment of the job. Affective job satisfaction is a subjective construct representing an emotional feeling. [1] [3] [4] [7]Hence, emotional job satisfaction for individuals, the degree of pleasure or happiness, their job in general. Cognitive job satisfaction is a more objective and logical evaluation of various facets of a job. Cognitive job satisfaction can be unidimensional if it includes evaluation of just one facet of a job, such as pay or maternity leave, or multidimensional if two or more facets of a job are simultaneously evaluated. Cognitive job satisfaction does not assess the degree of pleasure or happiness that arises from specific jobs, but rather gauges the extent to which those jobs are judged by the job holder to be satisfactory in comparison with other objectives. Whereas the cognitive job satisfaction, the two constructs are distinct,[4]

Job satisfaction can also be seen in the context of an individual’s experience, or their quality of working life . Job satisfaction can be understood in terms of its relationships with other key factors, such as general well-being, stress at work, control at work, home-work interface, and working conditions. [8]

A study title “Analysis of Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of the Employees in Public and Private Sector”, in India concluded that in India Employees tend to love their job if they get what they believe is an important attribute of a good job. Weighting factor of each such attribute based on exhaustive survey has been calculated. Region, sector and gender wise study of job satisfaction has been shown to be most prevalent in the area of ​​employment and education. sector. Total job satisfaction level of men is found to be higher than that of woman. Total job satisfaction level in manufacturing is very low. [9]


The assessment of job satisfaction through anonymous exams became commonplace in the 1930s. [10] Although prior to that time, there was only a handful of studies published. [11] Latham and Budworth [10] notes that Uhrbrock [12] in 1934 was one of the first psychologists to use the newly developed attitude measurement techniques to assess factory worker attitudes. They also note that in 1935 Hoppock [13] conducted a study that focuses explicitly on job satisfaction that is affected by both the nature of the job and relationships with coworkers and supervisors.

Models (methods)

Affect theory

Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states how much we value a given facet of work (eg the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied / dissatisfied When a person values ​​a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more strongly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who does not value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values ​​in the workplace and Employee is indifferent about autonomy,

Dispositional approach

The dispositional approach suggests that they should be satisfied with their jobs, in other words, job satisfaction is to some extent an individual trait. [14] This approach has become noticeable in terms of job satisfaction and job satisfaction. [15] Research also indicates that identical twins have been reported to have similar levels of job satisfaction. [16]

A significant model That Narrowed the scope of the dispositional approach Was the Core Self-evaluations Model , Proposed by Timothy A. Judge, Edwin A. Locke, and Cathy C. Durham in 1997. [17] Judge et al. argued That There are four Core Self-evaluations That determines one’s disposal Towards job satisfaction, self-esteem , general self-efficacy , locus of control , and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem and general self-efficacy lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction. [17]

Equity theory

Equity Theory shows how a person views fairness in a relationship. A person identifies the amount of input (things gained) from a relationship compared to the output (things given) to produce an input / output ratio. They then compare this ratio to the ratio of other people in deciding whether or not they have an equitable relationship. [18] [19] Equity Theory suggests that an individual thinks of an inequality between two social groups or individuals, and that it is likely to be distressed because of the ratio between the input and the output are not equal. [20]

For example, consider two employees who work the same job and receive the same pay and benefits. If one individual gets a pay raise for doing the same work as the other, then the less benefited individual will become distressed in his workplace. If, on the other hand, both people get paid raises and new responsibilities, then the feeling of equity will be maintained. [20]

(1998), Husband, Hatfield, & Mile, 1987, O’Neil & Mone 1998). These three types are benevolent, equity sensitive, and entitled. The level by each type affects motivation , job satisfaction, and job performance.

  1. Benevolent-Satisfied when they are under-rewarded compared with co-workers
  2. Equity sensitive-Believe everyone should be fairly rewarded
  3. Entitled-People believe that everything they receive is their just due [21]

Discrepancy theory

The concept of discrepancy theory is to explain the ultimate source of anxiety and dejection. [22] An individual who has not fulfilled his responsibility feels the sense of anxiety and regret for not performing well. They will also feel that they will not be able to achieve their hopes and aspirations. According to this theory, all individuals will learn what their obligations and responsibilities are for a particular function, and if they fail to fulfill those obligations then they are punished. Over time, these duties and obligations consolidate to form an abstract set of principles, designated as a self-guide. [23] Agitation and anxiety are the main responses when an individual fails to fulfill the obligation or responsibility. [24]This theory of achievement can also be awarded, approval, or love. These achievements and aspirations also form an abstracted set of principles, referred to as the ideal self guide. [23] When the individual fails to obtain these rewards, they begin to have feelings of depression, disappointment, or even depression. [24]

Two-factor theory (motivator-hygiene theory)

Main article: Two-factor theory

Frederick Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory (also known as motivator-hygiene theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. [25] This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. An employee’s motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate. Motivation can be seen as an internal force that drives individuals to attain personal and organizational goals (Hoskinson, Porter, & Wrench, 133). Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. [26]These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. [25] Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment, such as company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions. [25]

While Herzberg’s model has been stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham proposing that Herzberg’s original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact. [25] Moreover, the theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees in a similar manner to changes in motivating / hygiene factors. [25] Finally, the model has-been criticised fait que it does not Specify how motivating / hygiene factors are to be Measured. [25]

Job characteristics model

Main article: Job characteristic theory

Hackman & Oldham proposed the job characteristics model, which is widely used. The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee’s attitudes and behaviors. Not everyone is affected by the MPS of a job. People who are high in growth need strength, are particularly affected by job characteristics. [27] A meta-analysis of studies that assesses the framework of the model provides support for the validity of the JCM. [28]

Influencing factors

Environmental factors

Communication overload and underload

One of the most important aspects of an individual’s work in a modern organization. [29] Demands can be characterized as a communication load, which refers to “the rate and complexity of communication inputs”. [30] Individuals in an organization can experience communication overload and communication under – which can affect their level of job satisfaction. Communication overload can occur when an individual receives messages that are more complex than when they are more difficult to process. [30]“Due to this process,” given an individual ‘s style of work and motivation to complete a task, when more inputs exist than outputs, the individual perceives a condition of overload [29]which can be positively or negatively related to job satisfaction. In comparison, communication under load can occur when the individual’s ability to process is underscored. ” [30] According to the ideas of communication over-load and under-load, if an individual does not receive enough input job or is unsuccessful in processing these inputs, the individual is more likely to become dissatisfied, aggravated, and unhappy with their work which leads to a lower level of job satisfaction.

Superior-subordinate communication

Main article: Superior-subordinate communication

Superior-subordinate communication is an important influence on job satisfaction in the workplace. The way in which subordinates perceive a supervisor ‘s behavior can positively or negatively influence job satisfaction. Communication behavior such as facial expression, eye contact, vocal expression, and body movement is crucial to the superior-subordinate relationship (Teven, 156). Nonverbal messages play a central role in interpersonal interactions with respect to impression formation, deception, attraction, social influence, and emotional. [31]Nonverbal immediacy from the supervisor helps to increase interpersonal involvement with their subordinates impacting job satisfaction. The way in which supervisors communicate with their subordinates may be more important than the verbal content (Teven, 156). Individuals who dislike and think negatively about their supervisors are more likely to communicate with them than they are. A supervisor who uses nonverbal immediacy, friendliness, and open communication lines is more likely to receive positive feedback and high job satisfaction from a subordinate. Conversely, a supervisor who is antisocial, unfriendly,

Strategic employee recognition

A Watson Wyatt Worldwide study has a positive outcome between a collegical and flexible work environment and an increase in shareholder value. Suggesting that employee satisfaction is directly related to financial gain. Over 40 percent of the companies listed in the top 100 of Fortune magazine’s, “America’s Best Companies to Work For” also appear on the Fortune 500. It is possible that successful workers enjoy working at successful companies, however, the Watson Wyatt Worldwide Human Capital Index study claims that effective human resources practices, such as employee recognition programs, leads to positive financial outcomes. [32]

Employee recognition is not only about gifts and points. It’s about changing the corporate culture in order to meet goals and most importantly to connect employees to the company’s core values ​​and beliefs. Strategic employee recognition is one of the most important programs to improve employee retention and motivation. [33]The difference between the traditional approach and strategic recognition is the ability to serve as a serious business influencer. “The vast majority of companies want to be innovative, but it is not so easy to achieve. have to carefully manage an organization that, over time, innovations will emerge. ” [34]

Individual factors


Mood and emotions at work are related to job satisfaction. Moods are often more intense, short-lived and have a clear object or cause. [35]

Some research suggests moods are related to overall job satisfaction. [36] [37] Positive and negative emotions were also significantly related to overall job satisfaction. [38]

Frequency of positive experience will be better predictor of overall job satisfaction than will be positive. [38]

Emotion work refers to various types of efforts to manage emotional states and displays. Emotion management includes all of the conscious and unconscious efforts to increase, maintain, or decrease one or more components of an emotion. Although early studies of the consequences of emotional work, it is suggested that the consequences of this work are not uniformly negative. [39]

It was found that the satisfaction of the job satisfaction and the amplification of pleasant emotions increases job satisfaction. [40]

The understanding of how emotion regulation relates to job satisfaction

  1. Emotional dissonance . Emotional dissonance is a state of discrepancy between public displays of emotions and internal experiences of emotions, [41] [42] that often follows the process of emotion regulation. Emotional dissonance is associated with high emotional exhaustion, low organizational commitment, and low job satisfaction. [43] [44]
  2. Social interaction model . Taking the social interaction perspective, workers’ emotions regulation may be more important than their own job satisfaction. For example: The accumulation of favorable responses to positive emotions. [40]


The influence of genetics has been documented. [45] Some research suggests genetics also play a role in the intrinsic, direct experiences of job satisfaction like challenge or achievement (as opposed to extrinsic, environmental factors like working conditions). One experiment used sets of monozygotic twins, reared apart, to test for the existence of genetic influence on job satisfaction. While the results indicate the majority of the variance in job satisfaction (70%), genetic influence is still a minor factor. Genetic heritability has also been suggested for several times, measured in the experiment, such as complexity level, motor skill requirements, and physical demands. [46]


Some research suggests an association between personality and job satisfaction. [47] Specifically, this research describes the role of negative affectivity and positive affectivity . Negative affectivity is strongly related to the trait trait of neuroticism . Individuals high in negative affectivity are more prone to experience less job satisfaction. Positive affectivity is strongly related to the personality trait of extraversion. Those who are more positive in their lives are more likely to be in their life. Differences in Affective Performance, How to Do Differences in Affective Performance, How Do They Affect Themselves? [48]

There are two personality factors related to job satisfaction, alienation and locus of control . Employees who have an internal locus of control and feel more satisfied with job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational commitment. Meta-analysis of 187 studies of job satisfaction that has been positively associated with internal locus of control. The study also showed features such as high machiavellianism , narcissism , angina trait , type A personality dimensions of achievement striving and impatience / irritability, are also related to job satisfaction. [49]

Psychological well-being

Psychological well-being (PWB) is defined as “the overall effectiveness of an individual’s psychological functioning” as related to primary facets of one’s life: work, family, community, etc. [50] There are three defining characteristics of PWB. First, it is a phenomenological event, meaning that they are happy when they subjectively believe themselves to be so. Second, well-being involves some emotional conditions. Particularly, psychologically well people are more likely to experience positive emotions and less prone to experience negative emotions. Third, well-being refers to one’s life as a whole. It is a global evaluation. [50]PWB is primarily measured using the eight-item Index of Psychological Well-Being by Berkman (IPWB). IPWB asks questions about how often they feel “pleased about accomplishing something,” “bored,” “depressed or unhappy,” and so on. [50]

PWB in the workplace plays an important role in determining job satisfaction and has attracted much attention in recent years. [51] These studies have focused on the effects of PWB on job satisfaction and performance . [52] One study noted that because job satisfaction is specific to one’s job, the research that one’s job satisfaction has taken into account. [53]Prior studies had focused only on the work environment. Ultimately, to better understand job satisfaction and its close relative, job performance, it is important to take into account an individual’s PWB. Research published in 2000 showed a significant correlation between PWB and job satisfaction (r = .35, p <.01). [50] A follow-up study by the same authors in 2007 revealed similar results (r = .30, p <.01). [53] In addition, these studies show that PWB is a better predictor of job performance than job satisfaction alone.


The majority of job satisfaction measures are self-reported and based on multi-item scales. Several measures have been developed over the years, they vary in terms of how carefully they are conceptualized with respect to affective or cognitive job satisfaction. They also vary in terms of the extent and rigor of their psychometric validation.

The Brief Index of Affective Job Satisfaction (BIAJS) is a 4-item, overtly affective as opposed to cognitive, measure of overall affective job satisfaction. The BIAJS differs from other job satisfaction in terms of reliability, reliability, convergence and criterion-related validity, but also for cross-population, job level, and job type. Reported internal consistency reliabilities range between .81 and .87. [3]

The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), [54] is a specifically cognitive job satisfaction measure. It measures one’s satisfaction in five facets: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. The scale is simple, participants answer either yes, no, or can not decide (indicated by ‘?’) In response to one’s statements.

Other job satisfaction questionnaires include: the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), and the Faces Scale. [1] The MSQ measures job satisfaction in 20 facets and has a long form with 100 questions (one item from each facet). The JSS is a 36 item questionnaire that measures nine facets of job satisfaction. Finally, the face of the job satisfaction, one of the first levels of employment.

Relationships and practical implications

Job satisfaction can be indicative of work behaviors such as organizational citizenship, [55] and withdrawal behaviors such as absenteeism , [56] and turnover . [57] Further, job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behaviors. [58]

One common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction . [59] This correlation is reciprocal, meaning people who are satisfied with life and who are satisfied with their lives. In fact, a 2016 FlexJobssurvey revealed that 97% of respondents believe that they would have a positive impact on their lives, 87% think it would help lower stress and 79% think the flexibility would help them live healthier. [60]In addition, a second survey of 650 working parents revealed that flexible work arrangements could positively affect people’s personal health. [61] However, some job satisfaction is not significantly related to life satisfaction when other variables such as nonwork satisfaction and core self-assessments are taken into account. [62]

An significant finding for organisms to score Is That job satisfaction: has a tenuous Rather correlation to productivity on the job. This is a vital piece of information to researchers and businesses, as well as to the fact that it is directly related to one another and is often cited in the non-academic management literature. A recent meta-analysis found surprisingly low correlations between job satisfaction and performance. [63]Further, the meta-analysis found that the relationship between satisfaction and performance can be moderated by job complexity, such that for high-complexity jobs the correlation between satisfaction and performance is higher than for jobs of low to moderate complexity. In addition, it is possible to estimate the extent to which absenteeism is high, whereas job satisfaction and organizational responsibility are potentially good for low absenteeism and turnover intentions. [64]Recent research has also shown that it can not be negatively impacted by performance, organizational deviance, and organizational citizenship. [65]In short, the relationship of satisfaction with productivity is a fact of life, and the notion that “a happy worker is a productive worker” should not be the foundation of organizational decision-making. For example, employee personality may be more important than job satisfaction in regards to performance. [66]


Main article: Absenteeism

Numerous studies have been done to show the correlation of job satisfaction and absenteeism. [67] For example, Goldberg and Waldman looked at absenteeism in two dimensions and the frequency of time lost. Self-reported data and records-based data were collected and compared. Following absenteeism measures were evaluated according to absenteeism predictors.

  1. Self-report time lost
  2. self-reported frequency
  3. records-based time lost

Only three categories of predictors had a significant relationship ratio and were taken in

  • Health
  • Wages
  • Position level

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