Post-left anarchy

Post-left anarchism is a recent article in anarchist thought that promotes criticism of anarchism’s relationship to traditional leftism . Some post-leftists seek to escape the confines of ideology in general while also presenting a critique of organisms and morality . [1] Influenced by the work of Max Stirner [1] and by the Situationist International , [1] post-left anarchy is marked by a focus on social insurgency and a rejection of leftist social organization. [2]

Post-leftists argue that the left , even the revolutionary left, is anachronistic and incapable of creating change. They claim post-left anarchy offers criticisms of radical strategies and tactics which it considers antiquated: the demonstration, class-oriented struggle, focus on tradition, and the inability to escape the confines of history. The book Anarchy in the Age of Dinosaurs , for example, criticizes traditional leftist ideas and classical anarchism while calling for a rejuvenated anarchist movement. The CrimethInc. “Your Politics Are Boring as Fuck” is another critic of “leftist” movements:

Why has the oppressed proletariat not come to its senses and joined you in your fight for world liberation? … [Because] they know that your traditions of protest – your marches, hand-held signs, and gatherings – are now in force. They know that your post-Marxist jargon is off-putting because it’s really a language of mere academic dispute, not a weapon capable of undermining systems of control …

-  Nadia C., “Your Politics Are Boring as Fuck” [3]


Theory and criticism of organization

Jason McQuinn describes the left-wing organizational structure of “transmission-belt” structure with an explicit division between leaders and leaders, along with provisions to the rank and file memberships. In such organizations, he says, “more than a few people wise up to the con game and reject it.” [4] For him there are four results of such structures:

  • Reductionism . Here “Only Particular aspects of the social struggle are included in thesis organisms Other aspects are ignored, Invalidated or repressed, leading to further Top and further Top compartmentalization of the struggle Which in turn Facilitates manipulation by. Elites and Their Eventual transformation into Purely reformist lobbying societies with all generalized, critical radical emptied out. ” [1]
  • Specialization or Professionalism : This calls attention to “Where are the most involved in the day-to-day operations of the organization are selected-or self-selected? leaders and led, with gradations of power and influence in the form of intermediary roles in the evolving organizational hierarchy . ” [1]
  • Substitutionism where “The formal organization becomes the focus of strategy and tactics rather than the people-in-revolt.” In theory and practice, the organization tends to be progressively substituted for the people, the organization’s leadership-especially if it has become formal- tend to substitute itself for the organization as a whole, and eventually a maximum leader often emerges who ends up embodying and controlling the organization. ” [1]
  • Ideology where “The organization Becomes the primary subject of theory with Individuals assigned roles to play, Rather than people Constructing Their Own self-theories. All but The Most self-consciously anarchistic formal organisms tends to adapted Some form of collectivist ideology, in qui the social group at Some level is acceded to have more political reality than the free individual Wherever sovereignty lies, there lies political authority;. if sovereignty is not Dissolved into Each and every person it always requires the subjugation of Individuals to a group in Some form. “. [1]

To counter tendencies thesis post-left anarchy advocates individual and group autonomy with free initiative, free combination , refusal of political authority, and THUS of ideology, small, simple, informal, transparent and temporary organization, and Decentralized, Federal Direct organization with decision- making and respect for minorities . [1]

The criticism of ideology (ies)

Post-left anarchy adheres to a critique of ideology that “dates from the work of Max Stirner “. [1] For Jason McQuinn, “All ideology in essence involves the substitution of alien (or incomplete) concepts or images for human subjectivity.Ideologies are systems of false consciousness in which they relate to their world. They are conceived of themselves as being subordinated to one another or to other types of entities that are mistaken to the real subjects or actors in their world. ” “Whether the abstraction is God , the State , the Party , the Organization, Technology, the Family, Humanity, Peace , Ecology , Nature , Work, Love, or even Freedom; if it is conceived and presented as if it is an active subject with its being of its own making, then it is the center of an ideology. ” [1]

The rejection of morality

Morality is also a target of post-left anarchy in the field of Friedrich Nietzsche [1] and in the work of Friedrich Nietzsche . For McQuinn “Morality is a system of reified values-abstract values ​​which are taken out of any context, set in stone, and converted into unquestionable beliefs to be applied regardless of a person’s desires, thoughts or goals, and regardless of the situation. which a person finds him- or morality is the practice of not only reducing the values ​​of self-righteousness , but also of having more of a self-righteousness , and of proselytizing for the adoption of morality as a tool of social change. ” [1]Living up to morality means sacrificing certain desires and temptations (regardless of the actual situation you might find yourself in) in favor of the rewards of virtue . [1]

So “Rejecting Morality involves constructing a critical theory of one’s self and society” in which a clear goal of ending one’s social alienation is never confused with reified bias. gain from radical criticism and solidarity, rather than what people must sacrifice or give up in order to live virtuous lives of politically correct morality. ” [1]

Critique of identity politics

Post-left anarchy tend to criticize what it Sees as the partial victimizing views of identity politics . Feral Faun thus writes in “The ideology of victimization” that there is a “feminist version of the ideology of victimization-an ideology which empowers, individual weakness (and subsequently dependence on ideologically based support groups and paternalistic protection from the authorities)”. [5] But in the end, the ideologies of the ideology of the victimization of the victimization of the victim of the victim. or to explore one’s real relationships to the social liberation , racial liberation , workers’ movements and so on. Because of this, these movements are not only a reversal of perspectives which breaks down social roles and allows them to be praxis built on their own passions and desires; they actually work against such a reversal of perspective. The ‘liberation’ of a social role to which the individual remains subject. ” [5]

The refusal of work

The issues of work, the division of labor and the refusal of work has been important in post-left anarchy. [6] [7] Bob Black in “The Abolition of Work” calls for the abolition of the producer- and consumer-based society, where, Black contends, all of life is devoted to the production and consumption of commodities . [8] Attacking Marxist state socialism as much as market capitalism, Black argues that the only way for people to be able to reclaim their time from jobs and employment, and that is to say that they need voluntarily – an approach referred to as ” ludic “. The essay argues that “no-one should ever work”, because it is a work in the field of economics. [8] Most workers, he states, are dissatisfied with work, so that what he says should be uncontroversial; however, it is controversial only because people are too close to the work-system to see its flaws. [8]

Play, in contrast, is not necessarily rule-governed, and is performed voluntarily, in complete freedom, as a gift economy . He points out that hunter-gatherer societies are typified by play, a view of Marshall Sahlins ; he recounts the rise of hierarchal societies, through which work is cumulatively imposed, so that the compulsive work of today would seem incomprehensibly oppressive even to ancients and medieval peasants. [8]It is necessary to get the job done, and it is important to get the job done, by claiming that first of all, most important tasks can be rendered ludic, or “salvaged” by being turned into game-like and craft-like activities, and secondly the vast majority of work. [8] The latter tasks are required because they only serve the functions of trade and social control. As for what is left, he advocates Charles Fourier’s approach of arranging activities so that people will want to do them. [8]He is also open-minded about the possibility of eliminating labor-saving technologies. It feels the right way to go beyond its limits because of its attachment to building its power on the category of workers , which requires a valuation of work. [8]


Post-left anarchists reject all ideologies in favor of the individual and communal construction of self-theory. [1] Individual self-theory is theory in which the integral individual-in-context (desires, and projects, etc.) is always the subjective center of perception , understanding and action. [1] Communal self-theory is similarly based on the subject, but always with an underlying awareness of the individuals (and their own self-theories) which make up the group or organization. [1]For McQuinn “Non-ideological, anarchist organizations (or informational groups) are quite explicitly based on the autonomy of the individuals who construct, which requires the surrender of personal autonomy as a prerequisite for membership”. [1]

Daily life, creation of situations, and immediatism

For Wolfi Landstreicher “The reappropriation of life on the social level, as well as icts full reappropriation on the individual level, can only Occur When We Stop Identifying Ourselves Essentially in terms of our social identities ” [9]and “The recognition That this trajectory must be brought to an end and new ways of life and respect developed if we are to achieve full autonomy and freedom. ” [9] The goal of relationships with others is no longer “to seek followers who accept one’s position” [9] but instead to seek “comrades and accomplices with which to carry on one’s explorations”. [9]

Hakim Bey advocates not having to “wait for the revolution” and immediately start “looking for” spaces “(geographic, social, cultural, imaginal) with potential to flower as autonomous areas -and we are looking for times in which these spaces are relatively open, or through the map of the country, or for whatever reason. ” [10] Ultimately “face-to-face, a group of humans synergize their efforts to achieve mutual desires, whether for good food and cheer, dance, conversation, the arts of life, or perhaps even for erotic pleasure, or to create a communal artwork, or to reach the bliss– in short, a ” union of egoists “Stirner put it) in its simplest form-or else, in Kropotkin’s terms, a basic biological drive to ” mutual aid .” [10]

Relationship with other tendencies within anarchism

Post-left anarchism has been critical of more classical schools of anarchism such as platformism [11] and anarcho-syndicalism . [12] A certain close relationship exists between post-left anarchy and anarcho-primitivism , individualist anarchism [13] [14] and insurrectionary anarchism . Nevertheless post-left anarchists Wolfi Landstreicher [15] and Jason McQuinn [16] have distanced themselves from and criticized anarcho-primitivism as “ideological”.


On platformism Bob Black has said that “It is an object to the ideological bankruptcy of the organizational anarchists today that they should exhume (not resurrect) a manifesto which was already obsolete when promulgated in 1926. The Organizational Platform enjoys an imperishable permanence: untimely then, untimely now, untimely forever Intended to persuade, it provoked the splits of anarchist alternative to Marxism , it restated the Leninistalternative to anarchism. , it barely made it into the history books. ” [11] For Black “The result is yet another sect .”[11]


Feral Faun has stated that “The anarcho-syndicalists”So” Anarcho-syndicalism does not make a radical break with the present society, but they will have to reproduce every one of its functions to guarantee the smooth running of their society. It is this way that they are so much more important in their daily lives. “Thus” the bourgeois liberal is happy to get rid of priests and kings, and the anarcho-syndicalist throws in presidents and bosses. But the factories remain intact, the remains intact – the entire social system remains intact. <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br>? – We’re still slaves! “[12]

The issue of “lifestyle anarchism”

Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism: An Unbridgeable Chasm 

Beginning in 1997, Bob Black became involved in a debate sparked by the work of anarchist and founder of the Institute for Social Ecology , Murray Bookchin , an outspoken critic of the post-left anarchist tendency. Bookshin wrote and published Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism: An Unbridgeable Chasm , anarchists post-left labeling anarchists and others as ” lifestyle anarchists ” – thus following up a developed theme in his Philosophy of Social Ecology . Black Book of Blacklisting, Bookchin clearly has Black’s work, John Zerzanand Dave Watson , whom he controversially labels part of the same tendency.

For Bookchin, “lifestyle anarchism” is individualistic and childish. “Lifestyle anarchists” asks “anarchy now”, imagining they can create a new society through individual lifestyle changes. In his view this is a kind of fake-dissident consumerism which ultimately does not impact the functioning of capitalism because it fails to recognize the realities of the present. He grounds this polemic in a social-realist criticism of relativism, which he associates with anarchism and postmodernism(to which he claims it is related). Ludic approaches, he claims, lead to social indifference and egotism similar to that of capitalism. Against this approach, he advocates a variety of anarchism in which social action is taken over by individual actions, with the evolution of the emerging marxist theory. The unbridgeable chasm of the book’s title is between individual “autonomy” – which for Bookchin is a bourgeois illusion – and social “freedom”, which implies direct democracy , municipalism, and leftist concerns with social opportunities.Libertarian Municipalism . He claims that “lifestyle anarchism” goes against the fundamental tenets of anarchism, accusing it of being “decadent” and “petit-bourgeois” and an outgrowth of American decadence and a period of declining struggle, and speaks in nostalgic terms of “the Left that was “for, for all its flaws, vastly superior to what has come since.

Anarchy After Leftism 

In response, Black published Anarchy After Leftism which later became a seminal post-left work. [17] The text is a combination of point-by-point, almost legalistic dissection of Bookchin’s argument, with bitter theoretical polemic, and even personal insult against Bookchin (which he refers to as “the Dean” throughout). Black accuses Bookchin of moralism, which in post-left anarchism, refers to the imposition of abstract categories on reality in which the twist and repress desires (as distinct from “ethics”, which is an ethos of living similar to Friedrich Nietzsche’s call for an ethic “beyond good and evil”), and of “puritanism” , a variant of this. He attacks Bookchin for his Stalinisthis origins, and his failure to renounce his own past affiliation with what he himself had denounced as “lifestylist” themes (such as the slogans of May 1968 ). He claims that the categories of “lifestyle anarchism” and “individualist anarchism” are straw-men . He alleges that Bookchin adopts a ” work ethic “, and that his themes, such as the denunciation of Yuppies , actually repeat themes in mass consumer culture , and that he fails to analyze the social basis of capitalist “selfishness”; instead, Black calls for an enlightened “selfishness” which is simultaneously social, as in Max Stirner ‘s work .

Bookchin, Black Claims, has misunderstood the criticism of asocial work , when in fact it proposed non-compulsive social relations. He argues that Bookchin believes labor to be essential to humans, and thus is opposed to the abolition of work. And he takes him to a case for ignoring Black’s own writings on work, for idealizing technology, and for misunderstanding the history of work.

He denounces Bookchin’s alleged failures, and for not having a mass audience, and receiving favourable reviews from “yuppie” magazines. He accuses Bookchin of self-contradiction, such as calling the same people “bourgeois”and “lumpen” , or “individualist” and “fascist”. He alleges that Bookchin’s “social freedom” is “metaphorical” and has no real content of freedom. He criticizes Bookchin’s appropriation of the anarchist tradition, arguing against his dismissal of authors such as Stirner and Paul Goodman ,, and defending what he calls an “epistemic break” made by the likes of Stirner and Nietzsche. He alleges that the post-left “disdain for theory” is simply Bookchin’s way of saying they ignore his own theories. He offers a detailed response to Bookchin’s accusation of an association of eco-anarchism with fascism via a common-law root in German romanticism, criticizing both the derivation of the link (which he terms ” McCarthyist “) and the portrayal of romanticism itself, which Bookchin’s sources such as Mikhail Bakunin are no more politically correct than those he denounces, and accusing him of echoing fascist rhetoric and propaganda. He provides evidence to dispute Bookchin’s association of “terrorism” with individualist rather than social anarchism . He points to carnivalesque aspects of the Spanish Revolution to undermine Bookchin’s dualism .

Black then rehearses the post-left criticism of organization, drawing on his knowledge of anarchist history in an attempt to reject Bookchin’s accusation that anti-organizationalism is based in ignorance. He claims that other things that are impossible in urban settings, that it degenerates into bureaucracy , and that that organizer anarchists such as the Confederacion Nacional del Trabajo sold out to state power. He argues that Bookchin is not an anarchist at all, but rather, a “municipal statist” or “city-statist” committed to local government by a local state – smattering his argument with further point-by-point objections (for instance, over whether New York Cityis an “organic community” given the Alleged high crime-rate and whether Confederated Municipalities are compliant with Direct democracy ). He also takes up Bookchin’s opposition to relativism , arguing that this is confirmed by science, especially anthropology – proceeding to produce evidence that Bookchin’s work has, in fact, attacked its scientific credentials, and to denounce dialectics as unscientific. He then argues point-by-point with Bookchin’s criticisms of primitivism , debating issues such as life-expectancy statistics, and ecological destruction by hunter-gatherers. And he concludes with a clarion-call for an anarchist paradigm-shift based on post-left themes, celebrating the “anarchy after leftism” of the title.

Subsequent publications

Bookchin’s reply to “Whither Anarchism?” as it pertained to Black, dismissed his arguments as unworthy of rebuttal because Black inaccurately described. In “Withered Anarchism,” Black identified instances where Bookchin’s own books have been identified at Goddard College and Ramapo College, and Black called the issue. A review of Bookchin, Democracy and Leftism, “Nightmares of Reason,” posted as an E-book at The Anarchy Library in 2012. [18]

Bookchin, as noted by Black in Nightmares of Reason , eventually came back to anarchism as having “always been” essentially individualistic and ineffective, despite his self-professed attempts to rescue it; in its stead, he founded a new libertarian socialist ideology of his own, which he called ” Communalism “.


A certain close relationship exists between post-left anarchy and anarcho-primitivism since anarcho-primitivists such as John Zerzan and the Green Anarchy magazine have adhered and contributed to the post-left anarchy perspective. Nevertheless, post-left anarchists such as Jason McQuinn and Feral Faun / Wolfi Landstreicher [15] have distanced themselves from and criticized anarcho-primitivism.

Wolfi Landstreicher has criticized the “ascetic morality of sacrifice or of a mystical disintegration into a supposedly unalienated oneness with Nature,” [19] which appears in anarcho-primitivism and deep ecology . Jason McQuinn has criticized what he sees in anarchical primitivism when he says that it is an idealized, predominantly visionary society that tends to be irresistibly displace the essential centrality of critical self-theory , their occasional protests to the contrary. The locus of criticism quickly moves from the critical self-understanding of the social and natural world to the adoption of a preconceived ideal of which world (and one’s own life) is measured, anarchetypally ideological stance. This nearly irresistible susceptibility to idealization is primitivism’s greatest weakness. ” [16]

Individualist anarchism

Murray Bookchin HAS APPROBATION post-left anarchy as a form of individualist anarchism in Social Anarchism or Lifestyle Anarchism: An unbridgeable Chasm Where he says he identified “a shift Among Euro-American anarchists away from social anarchism and Toward individualist or lifestyle anarchism Indeed,. lifestyle anarchism today is finding its main expression in spray-can graffiti , post-modernist nihilism , antirationalism, neoprimitivism, anti-technologism, neo- Situationist ‘cultural terrorism,’ mysticism, and a ‘practice’ of staging Foucauldian ‘personal insurrections.’ “. [20]

As noted above, post-left anarchist Bob Black , in his book-length criticism of Bookchin’s philosophy entitled Anarchy After Leftism , said of post-left anarchy that: “It is unlike Bookchinism,” individualistic “in the sense that if the freedom and happiness of the individual – Every Tom, Dick, and Murray – Is not the measure of the good society, what is it? [21]

A strong relationship does exist with post-left anarchism and the work of individualist anarchist Max Stirner . Jason McQuinn says that “when I (and other anti-ideological anarchists) criticize ideology, it is always a critical issue, anarchist perspective rooted in both the skeptical, individualist-anarchist philosophy of Max Stirner …”. [14] Also Bob Black and Feral Faun / Wolfi Landstreicher strongly adhereto stirnerist egoist anarchism .

Bob Black has suggested the idea of ​​”marxist stirring”, his term for the union of Stirner’s Consciousness with the Principles of anarcho-communism as suggested by the short-lived Bay Area anarchist group for Ourselves in their pamphlet The Right to Be Greedy : The Practical Necessity of Demanding Everything . In fact, the group claims that true communism was only possible on the basis of an enlightened self-interest that extended itself to a respect for the interests of others and the entitlement of all to the means of life. [22]

Hakim Bey HAS said “From Stirner’s Union of Self-Owning Ones we proceed to Nietzsche ‘s circle of Free Spirits and thence to Charles Fourier ‘s Passional Series , doubling and redoubling Ourselves Even As the Other multiplied Itself in the eros of the group. ” [23] In another essay Hakim Bey said that “Deeply as we have been influenced by Stirner / Nietzsche (Benjamin) Tucker / (John Henry) Mackay , we have never held to any rigid ideological or psychological form of Individualism / Egoism. anarchism is lovely dynamite, but not the only ingredient in our cocktail. ” [24]The Mackay Society, incidentally, represents a little-known current of the Mackay Society, which is devoted to the anarchism of Max Stirner, Tucker & John Henry Mackay . . individualist thought qui ict never cut ties with revolutionary labor Dyer Lum , Ezra & Angela Haywood Represent this school of thought, Jo Labadie , Who wrote for Tucker’s Liberty, made himself a link between the American “plumb-line” anarchists, the “philosophical” individualists, and the syndicalist or communist branch of the movement; his influence reached the Mackay Society through his son, Laurance. Like the Italian Stirnerites (who influence us through our late friend Enrico Arrigoni ) we support all anti-authoritarian currents, despite their apparent contradictions. ” [25]

Among the individualists, Jason McQuinn for some time used in the pseudonym Lev Chernyi in honor of the Russian individualist anarchist of the same name, and Feral Faun has quoted Italian individualist anarchist Renzo Novatore [26] and has translated both Novatore [27] and the young Italian individualist anarchist Bruno Filippi . [28]


Recently anarcho-primitivist anarcha-feminist Lilith has published a post-left anarchist perspective. [29] In Gender Disobedience: Antiferremalism and Insurrectionist Non-dialogue (2009) “I feel that anarchist criticism of feminism may be valuable and illuminating. same anti-intellectualism and non-thought that seems to be the lot of post-Leftist criticism of feminist theory. ” [29] Lilith, along with other authors, published BLOODLUST: a feminist journal against civilization. [30]

Insurrectionary anarchism

Feral Faun (later writing as Wolfi Landstreicher) gained notoriety as he wrote articles that appeared in the post-left anarchy magazine Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed . Post-left anarchy has held similar reviews of organization as an insurrectionary anarchism as Wolfi Landstreicher and Alfredo Maria Bonanno . John Zerzan , said of the Italian insurrectionary anarchist Alfredo Maria Bonanno that “[m] aybe insurrectionalism is less an ideology than an undefined tendency, part left and part anti-left general anarchist.” [31]

Relationships with schools of thought outside anarchism

McQuinn has said that “Those seeking to promote the synthesis have been predominantly influenced by the anarchist movement up to the Spanish revolution, and the most prominent criticisms and modes of intervention developed since the 1960s. This article discusses the role of everyday life and the spectacle of the world of the world of modes of intervention and the deployment of direct action in all facets of life. [1] Thus the thought of the Situationist International is very important within post-left anarchist thought. [32]Other thinkers outside anarchism That-have taken relevance in post-left anarchy writings include Charles Fourier , [33] the Frankfurt School , [14]Friedrich Nietzsche , [14] Michel Foucault , and anthropologists Such As Marshall Sahlins . [34]

See also

  • Green syndicalism
  • illegalism
  • Insurrectionary anarchism
  • Left anarchism
  • Post-structuralism
  • Situationist International


  1. ^ Jump up to:s “Post-Left Anarchy: Leaving the Left Behind Prologue to Post-Left Anarchy” by Jason McQuinn
  2. Jump up^ Macphee, Josh (2007). “Introduction”. Realizing the Impossible . Stirling: AK Press. ISBN  1-904859-32-1 .
  3. Jump up^ Nadia C. “Your Politics Are Boring As Fuck” . CrimethInc. Selected Primary Texts .
  4. Jump up^ “Against Organizationalism: Anarchism and Philosophy of Organization”byJason McQuinn
  5. ^ Jump up to:b “The ideology of victimization” by Feral Faun
  6. Jump up^ Division of LaborByJohn Zerzan
  7. Jump up^ “Work: The Theft of Life”by Wolfi Landstreicher
  8. ^ Jump up to:g “The Abolition of Work”
  9. ^ Jump up to:d “From Politics to Life: Ridding anarchy of the leftist millstone” By Wolfi Landstreicher
  10. ^ Jump up to:b “The Temporary Autonomous Zone” by Hakim Bey
  11. ^ Jump up to:c Wooden Shoes or Platform Shoes ?: On the “Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists” by Bob Black
  12. ^ Jump up to:b “The Bourgeois Roots of Anarcho Syndicalism” by Feral Faun
  13. Jump up^ “Social Anarchism Gold Lifestyle Anarchism: An Unbridgeable Chasm” byMurray Bookchin
  14. ^ Jump up to:d “What is Ideology?” by Jason McQuinn
  15. ^ Jump up to:b “The Network of Domination” by Wolfi Landstreicher
  16. ^ Jump up to:b “Why I am not a Primitivist” by Jason McQuinn
  17. Jump up^ Thomas, Kenn (1999). Cyberculture Counterconspiracy . Book Tree. p. 15. ISBN  1-58509-125-1 .
  18. Jump up^ Bob Black (2010). “Nightmares of Reason” . CrimethInc. Selected Primary Texts . Retrieved 17 May 2015 .
  19. Jump up^ “The Network of Domination”by Wolfi Landstreicher
  20. Jump up^ Social Anarchism Gold Lifestyle Anarchism: An Unbridgeable ChasmbyMurray Bookchin
  21. Jump up^ Anarchy after Leftism byBob Black
  22. Jump up^ “Theses on Groucho Marxism”byBob Black
  23. Jump up^ Immediatism by Hakim Bey. AK Press. 1994. pg. 4
  24. Jump up^ Hakim Bey . “The Lemonade Ocean & Modern Times”
  25. Jump up^ Hakim Bey. “An esoteric interpretation of the IWW preamble”
  26. Jump up^, “Whither now? Some thoughts on creating anarchy” by Feral Faun
  27. Jump up^ Towards the creative nothing and other writingsbyRenzo Novatore
  28. Jump up^ Bruno Filippi (1916). “The rebel’s dark laughter: the writings of Bruno Filippi” . The Anarchist Library . . Retrieved 9 July 2012 .
  29. ^ Jump up to:b Lilith (2009). “Gender Disobedience: Antifeminism and Insurrectionist Non-dialogue” . The Anarchist Library . . Retrieved 9 July2012 .
  30. Jump up^, “BLOODLUST: a feminist journal against civilization”. Communiqué # 1 – Summer 2009.
  31. Jump up^ “The Left Today”byJohn Zerzan
  32. Jump up^ “some situationist-inspired writers are Black Bob, Hakim Bey … the … two are best defined as neo-situationists, in line with the publication” Anarchy: A Journal of Desire Armed “‘s”About the Situationist International
  33. Jump up^ “The Ocean Lemonade & Modern Times” byHakim Bey
  34. Jump up^ “Primitive Affluence: A Postscript to Sahlins”byBob Black

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