Right to work

The right to work is the concept that people have a human right to work, or engage in productive employment , and may not be prevented from doing so. The right to work is Enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and reconnu in international human rights law through ict inclusion in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights , Where the right to Work emphasizes economic, social and cultural development.

Definition

Article 23.1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: [1]

(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, and to the best conditions of work and protection against unemployment.

-  Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations General Assembly

The International Covenant on Economic and Social Rights Part III, Article 6: [2]

(1) The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right to work, which includes the right of everyone to the opportunity to gain access to the right to work.

(2) The steps to be taken by a State Party to the present Covenant to achieve the full realization of this technical and vocational guidance and training programs, policies and techniques to achieve steady economic, social and cultural development and full and productive employment under conditions of political independence and economic freedoms to the individual.

-  International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, United Nations General Assembly

The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights aussi le droit recognises, emphasising terms and pay, ie labor rights . Article 15, states:

Each individual shall have the right to work under the equitable and satisfactory conditions, and shall receive equal pay for equal work .

-  African Charter on Human Rights and Peoples’ Rights, Organization of African Unity

History

The phrase “the right to work” was coined by the French socialist leader Louis Blanc in light of the social turmoil of the early 19th century and rising unemployment in the wake of the 1846 financial crisis which led up to the French Revolution of 1848 . [3] The right to property is a crucial question in early issues for political freedom and equality, and against feudal control of property. Property can serve as the basis for the Entitlements That Ensure the realization of the right to an adequate standard of living and it Was Only property owners qui Were Granted INITIALLY civil and political rights , Such As the right to vote. Not not everybody. Everybody…..,.,.,.,.,.,.,.,. An. An. An.. [4]Today discrimination on the basis of property ownership is Recognized as a serious threat to the equal enjoyment of human rights by all and non-discrimination provisions in international human rights instruments frequently include property as a ground on the basis of qui discrimination is prohibited (see the right to equality before the law ). [5]

In the United States, “right to work” laws as passed by states. In other cases, they have been directed against regulation of qualifications for certain positions. Numerous US states have passed laws requiring licensing, testing, or educational requirements, such as claiming medical expertise. The Friedmans reported in 1980 that

Today you are a lawyer, a physician, a dentist, a plumber, a barber, a mortician, or a servant of the law. [6]

Many laws have been supported by existing professionals and their organizations in an effort to ensure a level of competence. Other observers believe their efforts have been directed at simply increasing prices. In response, entrepreneurs and activists have won numerous short cases securing constitutional protection for the right to earn a living. [7] Such cases have won the right to work for Louisiana monks who sell caskets, Philadelphia independent tour guides, Colorado taxi drivers, and Connecticut interior designers. [8]

According to the Conservative think tank, the American Enterprise Institute , the term “right to work” was coined by William Ruggles, roughly 100 years after the Socialist, Louis Blanc, actually coined the term. [9]

Criticism

Paul Lafargue , in The Right to be Lazy (1883), wrote: “And to think that the sounds of the heroes of the Terror have allowed themselves to be degraded by the religion of work, to the point of accepting, since 1848, as A revolutionary conquest, the law limiting factory labor to one. [10]

In the 1980 book Free to Choose , Economists Milton and Rose Friedman Said, “[An] essential share of economic freedom is freedom to use the resources we Possess in according with our own values – freedom to enter Any occupation, engages in Any business enterprise , buy from and sell to anyone else, so long as we have a strictly voluntary basis and do not resort to force in order to coerce others. ” [6]

On the other side, “the idea that the recognition of a right to work in the house … means to everyone the possibility to bring a short action … to get them, respond to a bias of an ideological defense of the right of property “. [11]

See also

  • Decent work
  • Equal pay for equal work
  • Full employment
  • Involuntary unemployment
  • Labor rights
  • Job guarantee
  • Protestant Work Ethic
  • Refusal of work
  • Right-to-work law
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
  • Youth
  • Youth suffrage
  • Youth rights
  • Age of candidacy

References

  1. Jump up^ “Universal Declaration of Human Rights: English” . Ohchr.org . Retrieved 2016-02-03 .
  2. Jump up^ “International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” . Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 1966.
  3. Jump up^ Revolutions of 1848: A Social History by Priscilla Robertson, 1952, Princeton University Press
  4. Jump up^ Alfredsson, Gudmundur; Eide, Asbjorn (1999). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: A Common Standard of Achievement . Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 533. ISBN  978-90-411-1168-5 .
  5. Jump up^ Alfredsson, Gudmundur; Eide, Asbjorn (1999). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: A Common Standard of Achievement . Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 372. ISBN  978-90-411-1168-5 .
  6. ^ Jump up to:b Milton Friedman and Rose Friedman (1980). Free to Choose . ISBN  978-0-15-633460-0 .
  7. Jump up^ The Institute for Justice. “Economic Liberty” . Retrieved May 1, 2013 .
  8. Jump up^ Laurel Petriello (2009-07-06). “Judge Rules Interior Design Title Act Unconstitutional in Connecticut” . Interior Design magazine .
  9. Jump up^ Perry, Mark J. “Morning Morning News editorial writer William Ruggles coined the term” right to work “on Labor Day in 1941” .
  10. Jump up^ Paul Lafargue The Right To Be Lazy , Chapter II, 2nd paragraph
  11. Jump up^ Buonomo, Giampiero (2000). “The formulation of the civil direc- tion of the freedom of religion”, “la lavori della Convenzione” . Diritto & Giustizia edizione online .  – via Questia (subscription required)

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