Job rotation is a technique used by some employers to rotate their jobs in their jobs. Employers practice this technique for a number of reasons. It is designed to promote flexibility in the employment of employees and employees. There is also research that shows how job rotations help relieve the stress of employees who work in a job that requires manual labor.
What are the objectives?
- Employee Learning
- Rotation making employees more versatile
- Gives employees has a broader understanding of the business of enabling them to be promoted. 
- Employer Learning
- Using job rotation employers can learn their individual worker’s strengths
- Employers receive a flexible and knowledgeable workforce that can be sourced throughout the company or agency. 
- Employee Motivation
- Rotation reduces boredom 
- More knowledge of the company as a whole.
With the company providing the opportunities and training for the job rotation, the employees who participate in the job rotation a position opening up in another firm. Along with employees benefiting, companies benefit as well. The business can hire more people than the majority of their staff will be able to be more flexible in the job functions than the company may, saving the company 
Job rotation is beneficial to the company in terms of productivity and reduction of the leave of absence workers throughout the year. A study was conducted to see what motivates employees in their job performance. Job security was among the least motivators. Employees wanted a sense of responsibility and pride in their tasks performed. Job rotation has been created for a small group of employees, and can produce a greater employee satisfaction, desire to become comfortable in their job functions, and decrease the desire to avoid their overtime duty. 
Why is job rotation beneficial?
Some employees are paid more for they are more than one job function and thus makes a better incentive for more people to be able to perform better in the workplace. It is a common perception that they usually opt into the program of job rotation that these individuals tend to have “higher perceived skills”  and are more likely to be promoted. 
Sometimes job rotation is practiced for the individual worker’s health benefit. This practice helps rotates the individual tasks and muscle movements. It reduces the stress of an average workday so that the workers do not feel the tension in their muscles. There has been electromyographic studies on this technique from mining to assembly lines. 
Job rotation in action
The key to success in this field is to know the key to success.
Toyo Kogyo Company
Toyo Kogyo Company is the Japanese firm that now produces Mazda automobiles. Toyo Kogyo has been practicing job rotation for over 20 years as a direct result of the oil embargo of the 1960s.  Toyo looked at job rotation to fill gaps in the world. This has resulted in a more efficient workforce that is more knowledgeable than their more specialized competitors. 
Intel Corporation now uses a new job. In 11 months Intel is about 1300 jobs lasting from weeks to years. These positions are available in various fields such as HR, Marketing, Finance and Product Development.  These assignments are meant to reinforce their ability to work with others. Many employees who experience this form of job rotation are given
Virgin America has one-year experience with Virgin Australia . The two companies are looking for excitement and energy among its employees.  The job market is a job-and-business job.
Job rotation can also be used to improve the physical and mental stresses of working with the same position, year after year. By allowing people to rotate to other positions, the risk factors for some types of musculoskeletal disorders can be reduced. Job Rotation is also considered to have the ability to decrease the amount of time spent working for the company. Job rotation in the job market, with a range of tasks, is more flexible in their positions while working with a wide range of skills. This allows the worker job security by developing multiple skills instead of specializing in one aspect. In times of urgency or emergency employment in the workplace 
There are some negative attributes associated with job rotation. Firstly, some positions within a company may not be eligible for rotation. There can be positions within the framework of a highly skilled worker.  These positions may not fit the profile for rotation opportunities because of the costs involved. Another problem is that some employees may be resistant to a job rotation due to standard union practices. 
Employers are able to evaluate employees for their output and also for their personality traits and team work skills. “Leadership measures, technical competence, relations with others and judgment.”  Job rotation benefits the sector by allowing them to become flexible in this area of employment or division. There are different reasons for a job rotation as such a job rotation as a learning mechanism. Research suggests that there are significant benefits that can be weighed against the costs involved.  This employment opportunity has an effect of moral boosting and self efficacy.  The company may need to work with a person in the position of an employee in a position of urgency. This practice is more likely to be productive and profitable.
Cost of Job Rotation
The cost of job rotation can be directly linked to the productive gains made through specialization.
Theory determining the benefit to specialization –
(1) Y = f (XuX2).
We are referring to the inputs as “jobs” which are capable of performing both jobs. Adam Smith, according to Adam Smith, said that they are identical in their intrinsic skills, we focus on the effect of the organization of work related skills. The role of the person in charge of the second period of the period of time That his or her counterpart HAD Produced in the first period. [clarification needed ]To capture this we let Y1 denote the total output in the first period, and Y2, and Y2 denote the output in the second period under rotation and specialization respectivement. When workers rotate jobs in the second period, Y2, = Y1; when the specialize and remain in the same job, Y2> Y1. Y2-Y2. Y2-Y2. This differential represents the cost of job rotation in terms of forgone output. “
A problem faced by companies is the possibility of having to pay incentives to employees.  The use of job rotation may have the effect of a cross-training involved; a company may not be required to hire additional staff.
Job rotation in the public sector can be used to create communication networks between agencies. This is a benefit for agencies of interoperability, or times of emergency.
Job rotation programs can be designed to encourage networking, or networks can be established informally through day-to-day interactions between the individual and his or her peers. at the host agency. ” 
“Depending on the assignment, an individual can build specific skills for collaborative interaction, such as how to plan, lead, and execute interoperability efforts. with an opportunity to do so. ” 
Drawbacks from Job Rotation in the public sector are often affected by the lack of cooperation between the agencies involved. Each agency must come into the project fully liable to fail; making these projects often hard to create or manage. Uneven exchangeable in the workforce. This not only affects the consistency of work of the first agency, but also has the effect of making managers more apprehensible to the appearance of future programs. Employees in these situations oftentimes feel that their careers are in the same position. Employees feel their contributions to other agencies will be valued by their home agency. Employees feel they will be looked at and miss future opportunities due to lack of recognition and difference in rental. 
“These programs are not easy to design and manage effectively, and they impose a number of significant costs on the individual organizations. are additional factors that complicate agencies’ abilities to work together to design a win-win program. ” 
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Eriksson, Tor, and Jaime Ortega. “Adoption of Job Rotation: Testing the Theories”. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 59.4 (2006): 653-666. Web …
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Arya, Anil, and Brian Mittendorf. “Using Optional Job Rotation Programs to Gauge On-the-Job Learning”. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE) / Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft 162.3 (2006): 505-515. https://www.jstor.org
- Jump up^ McGuire, John H .. “Productivity Gains Through Job Reorganization and Rotation”. Journal (American Water Works Association) 73.12 (1981): 622-623. Web …
- Jump up^ Bengt Johnson, “Electromyographic Studies of Job Rotation,” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health Vol 14 (May 1988): 108-109. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40958847
- ^ Jump up to:a b Times, Steve Lohr, Special To The NY (1982-07-12). “HOW JOB ROTATION WORKS FOR JAPANESE” . The New York Times . ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved 2016-04-28 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Weber, Lauren; Kwoh, Leslie (2012-02-21). “Co-Workers Change Places” . Wall Street Journal . ISSN 0099-9660 . Retrieved 2016-04-28.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h CRAIG, LAURA MILLER and JESSICA NIERENBERG. 2014. “Interagency Rotation Programs: Professional Development for Future Enterprise Leaders”. In Tackling Wicked Government Problems: A Practical Guide for Developing Enterprise Leaders, edited by JACKSON NICKERSON and RONALD SANDERS, 2nd ed., 141-52. Brookings Institution Press. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7864/j.ctt7zsvkw.14 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Coşgel Metin M., and Thomas J. Miceli. 1999. “Job Rotation: Cost, Benefits, and Stylized Facts”. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE) / Zeitschrift Für die Gesamte Staatswissenschaft 155 (2). Mohr Siebeck GmbH & Co. KG: 301-20. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40752141 .
- Jump up^ Hatvany, Nina, and Vladimir Pucik. 1981. “An Integrated Management System: Lessons from the Japanese Experience”. The Academy of Management Review 6 (3). Academy of Management: 469-80. https://www.jstor.org/stable/257382.