Job sharing or work sharing is an employment arrangement Where Typically two people are Retained were part-time or Reduced-time basis to perform a job Normally Fulfilled by one person working full-time . Since all positions are shared thus leads to a net reduction in income. The people sharing the job is a team responsible for the job workload. Compensation is apportioned between the workers. Working hours, pay and holidays are divided The pay as you go system makes national insurance deductions and superannuations are made as a straightforward percentage.
History in the US
The news media began reporting in earnest on job sharing in the 1970s and 1980s.  The practice was most often described as a solution for women, the Associated Press article summarized, “a compromise between fulltime housework and full-time employment”. 
In 1972 the New Ways to Work Foundation was funded, it is a non-profit organization founded in the San Francisco Bay area. Its main focus was to help “establish a work world that responds to the changing needs of individuals and organizations”. 
In 1978, the International Personnel Management Association and the Institute of Local Government joined the New Ways to Work program to sponsor the public sector. More than 80 public agencies sent representatives who have been learning about experiences in the field of job sharing projects. The Part Time Career Employment Act pl 95-437 was passed in 1978 as well. It is a time of day when it is time to work between 16-32 hours per week. 
Job sharing has become more prevalent during the 2000s, as well as more successful work arrangements.  In the early 2000s, two important factors began to push the job sharing movement. The access to information is becoming easier to access and the demographics in the workforce. Web site: http://www.wikipedia.org/wp-content?utm_source=estate=blog&oldid=1&lang=en Collaborative environment and in an asynchronous manner. The ever-changing demographicsin the United States also the right to the job sharing arrangement. With most of the baby boomer generation leaving the United States and pulling, generation X and Y transitioned their lives to an even better balance between family and work. Gender has also impacted the work force demographics: in 2004, women made up 59% of the workforce, with 50% of them in management positions.  The banking , insurance , teaching and libraryprofessions are cited as more commonly using job sharing. Some companies use job sharing That include New York Life Insurance Company , Fireman’s Fund Insurance Company , andWalgreens drugstores. 
Modern implementation in pharmacy academia
In pharmacy academia, job-sharing has been seen to help and encourage female employment.  Female pharmacists , compared to males, desire to work part-time earlier on in their careers.  There is a shortage in the pharmacy field of women.  In academia a similar problem exists, only 20% of full professors were women in 2007 even though 66% of students enrolled in pharmacy schools are women.  In order to retain and Increase female employment in the educational field, the University of TennesseeCollege of Pharmacy implemented job-sharing in 2007 and has observed a noticeable improvement. 
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Job share in other countries and areas
South Africa In South Africa, job sharing has been implemented in the work force. CEO of Kelly , South Africa’s first job recruitment agency, Kayee Vittee, believes “The most pressure exists in the workplace, the most severe impact on quality and productivity. Subsequently, this also has a detrimental effect on the use of wellbeing in general.  Solidarity , a South African trade union, which also promotes an alternative to full-time jobs. South Africa’s current economy, as of April, 2016, is a good solution, but it is a profitable solution for the current economy. 
Australia Jeremy Hayman, Senior Lecturer at Auckland University of Technology in New Zealand, specializing in Human Resource Management and Employee Relations.  The provision of a job experience in the field of employment and the provision of employment and a better work experience. environment especially in women aged 30-39. Australian surveys regarding job share, Hayman’s research was more responsive then other preexisting The findings for this study is a great foundation for the future of jobs in Australia and transforming management practice and work and social life balance.
Europe The United Kingdom has implemented job sharing for a while. In many European countries, the job sharing is already a common practice in the workforce. Companies in countries like the Czech Republic and Poland -have just recently supported job sharing is Widespread scale without contractual restrictions.  Other European countries like Slovenia and Slovakia have enforced legitimate job share governing.  A European union agency, Eurofound, was created by the European Council in May 1975 to create better working and living environments for Europeans.  EurofoundAnnually meets to decide new policies and adapted to changing times and in 2015, EurofoundFormally defined job sharing as a new form of employment. 
Caribbean Caribbean countries like Puerto Rico and Haiti have also started to practice job sharing. A few of the Caribbean islands in the Western hemisphere that have yet to adapt to the growth in the economy. Many of these countries have experienced a large number of countries that have moved to the United States, making the market more inconsistent and the economy more unstable.  The job share program proves to be a very cost conscious of economic and business prospects. 
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages Employees who switch to job share a full-time job often feel less stressed because they have more time for social and family personal activities. The millennial generation and its ever-changing demographics in the work force has made it easier to achieve success. Job sharing has been made to meet the needs of mothers and caretakers by providing them with a more flexible and less demanding job schedule. Job share employees who do not have a constant workload and do not need to constantly commute to a job on a daily basis, lowers their stress levels, resulting in healthier lives and work-life scales.  Job sharing may be a way to take control of their personal lives.  Employees who job share frequently attribute their decision to an improvement in ” quality of life “. 
For employment, job sharing is a benefit because it keeps two valuable employers, increasing capital and experience.  Job sharing can also prevent future employee burnouts from high stress careers while also making work more enjoyable for all. Successful job share sharing creates a mutually beneficial relationship. 40-hour job, making for a more effective and more profitable workplace for the employer.
Disadvantages Job share can be conflicting if the job share participants / employees are not open to a mutual agreement to distribute everything from salary, workload and time off. Job sharing can also be a disadvantage if the employee can not afford the part-time wages or benefits. It is also possible that job sharing can make an employee feel less productive over time.  If the job share is not effective, the transition period to find another partner could be disruptive and detrimental to the remaining employee. If proper participant and effort does not occur between the participants, job share can be a negative experience because of the coworkers can not be held accountable to the same expectations, shifting the balance of the job share arrangement.
The disadvantage of the employer is a disadvantage.  Though job share arrangements generally split the salary in half, training for employees can be satisfied.  Employers may also experience a more difficult time finding prospective employees who would like to participate. 
- Full employment
- Short time (short-time working)
- Work-life balance
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