Nursing shortage refers to a situation where the demand for nursing professionals , such as Registered Nurses (RNs), exceeds the supply-locally (eg, within a health care facility ), nationally or globally. It can be measured, for instance, when the nurse-to- patient ratio, the nurse-to-population ratio, or the number of job openings is higher. This situation is observed in developing nations around the world.
Nursing shortage is not necessarily due to lack of supply of trained nurses. In Some boxes Perceived Shortages Occur Simultaneously with Increased intake rates of students into nursing schools . Potential factors include lack of adequate staffing ratios in hospitals and other health care facilities, lack of placement programs for newly trained nurses, and inadequate worker retention incentives. 
Globally, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates a shortage of almost 4.3 million nurses, physicians and other health human resources worldwide, reported to be the result of decades of underinvestment in health worker education, training, wages, working environment and management. 
Nursing shortage is an issue in many countries. To remedy the problem, psychological studies have been completed to ascertain how to nurses feel about their career in the hope that they can determine what is preventing some nurses from keeping the profession a long-term career. In a study completed by sociologist Bryan Turner, the study found that the most common
- subordination to the medical profession
- difficult working conditions
A report from the Commonwealth of Australia identifies a few other matters that lead to dissatisfaction:
- constant schedule changes
- work overloads due to high number of patients and paperwork
- shift work
- lack of appreciation by superiors
- lack of provided childcare
- inadequate pay
Another study found that dissatisfaction stemmed from:
- conflicting expectations from nurses and managers
- inability to provide comprehensive nursing care
- loss of confidence in the health care system. 
In many jurisdictions, administrative / government health policy and practice has changed very little in the last decades. Cost-cutting is the priority, patient loads are uncontrolled, and nurses are rarely consulted when recommending health care reform .  The major reason nurses plan to leave the field, as stated by the First Consulting Group, because of working conditions.  With the high turnover rate, the nursing field does not have a chance to build up the already frustrated staff. Aside from the deteriorating working conditions, the real problem is “nursing’s failure to be attractive to the younger generation.” There’s a decline in interest Among college students to Consider nursing as a probable career . More than half of working with a child who would not like to nurse a child. 
Australian nursing researchers John Buchanan and Gillian Considine describes hospitals as “being run like a business” with “issues of patient care … of secondary importance.”  Emotional support, education, encouragement and counseling are integral to the daily nursing practice. However, these practices are not easily quantified and are considered by managers as unjustified cost for patients , who are viewed as consumers .  Therefore, only clinical responsibilities, such as drug administration, dressing changes, foley catheterinsertions, and anything that involves tangible supplies, are quantified and incorporated into the budget and plan of care for consumers .
The nursing shortage affects the developing countries that supply nurses through recruitment to work abroad in wealthier countries.  For example, United States, American hospital recruit nurses from overseas, especially the Philippines and Africa . This, in turn, can lead to greater nursing shortages in their home countries. In response, in 2010 the World Health Assembly adopted the Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel , a policy framework for all countries for the ethical international recruitment of nurses and other health professionals.
Impacts on healthcare
Nursing shortages (including low-level nurse-to-patient ratios)  have been linked to the following effects:  
- Increased nurses’ patient workloads
- Increased risk for error, thereby Compromising safety patient
- Increased risk of spreading infection to patients and staff
- Increased risk of adverse outcomes such as pneumonia , shock , cardiac arrest , and urinary tract infections 
- Increased risk for occupational injury
- Increase in nursing turnover, and the use of the health care system
- Increase in nurses’ perception of unsafe working conditions, local and national recruitment efforts
Global shortage and international recruitment
The nursing shortage takes place on a global scale. Australia, the UK, and the US receive the largest number of migrant nurses. Australia received 11,757 nurses from other countries between 1995 and 2000.  The US Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) records show that more than 10,000 foreign nurses were given H-1A visas in the same time frame.  The UK admitted 26,286 foreign nurses from 1998 to 2002.
Saudi Arabia also has 40 nations represented in its nurse workforce.  Netherlands needed to fill 7,000 nursing positions in 2002, England needed to fill 22,000 positions in 2000, and Canada would need to 10,000 nursing graduates by 2011. 
|Country||Number of nurses||Density per 1,000 population||year|
|United States of America||2669603||9.37||2000|
Source: Data from the World Health Organization (2006). In the American Hospital Association study, the cost to replace one nurse in the US was estimated at around $ 30,000- $ 64,000.  This amount is likely related to the cost of recruiting and training nurses into the organization. Hiring foreign nurses is more financially taxing compared to hiring domestic-graduate nurses; however, facilities save money in the long run  The JACHOin the United States wrote in a 2002 research report on the shortage in the US that recruiting foreign trained nurses from abroad (not referring to those who reside in the United States already) does not help the global nursing shortage and, in fact, perpetuates it . 
Countries That send Their nurses abroad experience a shortage and strain on Their health care systems .
In South Africa , accelerated recruitment by Developed Countries Such As United States , United Kingdom and Australia HAS Placed more pressure on the health care system due to prevalence of diseases , Such As AIDS , and limited resources.  Similar to the US, nurses who leave the organization are a financial disadvantage to the need to fund the recruiting and retraining of new nurses into the system. It has-beens Estimated That every nurse Who leaves South Africa is an annual loss of $ 184,000 to the country,  related to the financial and economic impact of nursing shortage.
The following table represents the number of nurses per 100,000-population in southern African countries. 
|Number of southern African countries||Number of nurses per 100,000 population|
|3||Less than 10|
In India international migration has been considered as one of the reasons behind shortages of nursing workforce. Social, economic and professional reasons have been cited behind this shortfall. 
Retention of nurses by sending (often developing) countries, by promoting working conditions, minimizing wage differentials, and promoting medical tourism. [ citation needed ] Retention can also be improved. There can be more unintended impacts of nurses migration abroad. For example, there is growing evidence that physicians in the Philippines have shifted to the nursing field for better export opportunities.  The World Health Organization (WHO) representative in Manila believes the government should invest more in its health sector as it is 3% of the Philippines’ GDP. [citation needed ]Others have suggested programs which require domestic service or employment upon graduation.
Foreign nurses who are developing their lives in the world, and who are interested in their interests, but there are risks. The media and scholars have been relatively silent on the ethical issues involving the potential exploitation of foreign nurses. [ according to whom? ] On the level of national sovereignty and global equality, there are ethical concerns about developing countries and developing countries. US incentives such as signing bonuses can be seen as promoting brain drain . Activists have a new term for this: “Brain drain in the south, brain waste in the north.” The President of the Philippines Nurse Association, George Codero, was quoted in a New York Times article as saying “The Filipino people will suffer because of the US will get our trained nurses.”  
On an individual basis, they are subject to exploitation by employers. In 1998, six Americans were admitted with the aid of H-1A visas and using them to employ Filipino nurses and nurse aides instead of registered nurses. [ quote needed ]In a case in 1996, a Catholic archdiocese employed some of these foreign nurses as a nurse instead of nurses. In 2000, Filipino Nurses in Missouri received $ 2.1 million for a fee in the same position would receive. While these cases were brought to court, many similar situations are left unreported thus Foreign nurses have the tendency to receive less desirable jobs, because of their immigrant status; they are excluded from jobs that would be profitable. [ quote needed ]
Some US health care facilities push to “ease restrictions” on the immigration law to increase the number of recruited foreign nurses . On the other hand, this recruitment practice is a temporary solution That does not fully address the nursing shortage as MENTIONED by American Nursing Association (ANA).  Others have taken a stand on ethically recruiting foreign workers. New York University Medical Center has been cited in The Search for Nurses Ends in Manila as it is a “poaching exercise” to take care of their citizens. The former health secretary, Dr. Galvez Tan, in reference to the doctors and nurses working for an American green card said, “There is to be give and take, not just take, take, take by the United States.” 
Shortage by country
Morocco has far fewer nurses and other paramedical staff per capita than other countries of comparable national income. The number of nurses in Morocco was 29.025 in 2011, with two thirds being registered nurses and one third auxiliary nurses, a ratio of 8 nurses per 10,000 population.  As a result, Morocco has been classified among 57 countries suffering from a glaring shortage of medically trained human resources.
A recent study by the European Institute of Health Sciences in Casablanca based on a scientific modeling of future needs  indicates that the situation will need to be improved 40,000 and 80,000 new nurse graduates until the year 2025.
The Philippines is the largest exporter of nurses in the world supplying 25% of all overseas nurses.  An Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development reported that one of every six foreign-born nurses in the OECD countries is from the Philippines.  Of all employed Filipino RNs, roughly 85% are working overseas.  This is partially in response to the inability of Filipino nurses to enter their domestic workforce to a lack of jobs and conditions. The United States has an especially prominent representation of Filipino nurses. Of the 100,000 foreign nurses working in the US as of 2000, 32.6% were from the Philippines. 
Reasons for international migration
The international migration of Filipino nurses takes place in response to “push and pull” factors. The push factors are rooted in the economic conditions in the Philippines in which there is an overabundance of RNs and a lack of open employment positions. The unemployment rate in the Philippines exceeds 10%. Filipino nurses for low wages and poor benefit packages. There are fewer jobs available, which increase the workload and pressure on RNs. Filipinos in the United States. The government also highly encouraged the export of RNs internationally. Filipino nurses are pulled to work abroad for the economic benefits of international positions. While a nurse in the Philippines will earn between $ 180 and $ 200 per month, a nurse in the US receives a salary of $ 4,000 per month. Nurses are fully respected in the Philippines as they are able to support the family at home through remittances. In 1993, Filipinos exported $ 800 million to their families in the Philippines.  additional, remittances from Filipinos made up 5.2% of the Filipino GDP (gross national product) between 1990 and 2000.  Further pull factors from the additional economic benefits of signing bonuses in the US To attract more foreign nurses, US hospitals increased signing bonuses from $ 1,000 to $ 7,000. Positions abroad in the health sector are also enticing for their immigration benefits. Throughout the past 50 years of nursing migration, the US has made efforts to ease visa application to further encourage international nurses to relieve the nursing shortage. Scholars notes that the better living and working conditions, higher income, and opportunities for career advancement draw nurses from the Philippines to work in the US
As the relationship between the US and the Philippines stretches back 50 years, Filipino nursing institutions often reflect the same education standards and methods as the US curriculum. Furthermore, a knowledge of English in the Philippines makes it easier for Filipino nurses (rather than nurses from other developing nations) to work in the US
Since 1916, 2,000 nurses have arrived in the US  In 1999, the US approved 50,000 migrant visas for these nurses.  Today, on average, there are about 30,000 Filipino nurses traveling to the US each year.
Effects of migration
The transnational migration of Filipino RNs has profound effects on the economy and the workforce dynamics in both sending and receiving nations. The departure of nurses of the domestic workforce represents a loss of skilled personnel and the economic investment in education. In addition, the “scarce and relatively expensive-to-train-resources” are invested when a worker chooses to work abroad.  When RNs migrate internationally, the country is one of the world’s most important sources of income.
According to many Filipinos working in hospitals, the most educated and skilled nurses are the first to go abroad. There is disagreement among scholars on the extent to which the Filipino health sector is burdened by its nursing shortage. While the data is inconsistent, it is clear that it is clear that it is a short supply of the most skilled nurses who go abroad. As a result, operating rooms are often staffed by novice nurses, and nurses with more experience work extremely long hours. As skilled nurses decline in the urban areas, nurses from rural areas migrate to hospitals in the cities for better pay. As a result, rural communities experience a drain of health resources. Stories and studies in the provinces can be fatal because there are no medical professionals to help treat them. In fact, “the number of Filipinos has increased steadily increasing for the last decade.” The lack of attention of medical professionals and the growing number of trained nurses in the Philippines.
Doctors, too, have changed professions and joined the international mobility trend. Filipino Doctors with Disabilities in Nursing MD-RN with the hope of immigrating to the US or other developed nations more easily. Since 2000, 3,500 Filipino doctors have migrated abroad as nurses.  The US Incentives for Nurse Migration encourages doctors to train as nurses in the hopes of increasing their economic prospects. As a result, the Philippines has a lower average of 0.58 and 1.69 respectively for a population of 1,000. The average statistics globally in contrast are 1.23 and 2.56. Between 2002 and 2007, 1,000 Filipino hospitals closed due to a shortage of health workers. Philippine Secretary of Health, Jaime Galvez-Tan, concluded that it is important to consider nursing.  Of the 9,000 doctors-turned-nurses, 5,000 are working overseas.  The extraordinary influence of this international migration has had devastating effects on the health of Filipinos. The number of deaths that have been prevented with medical attention has increased to as much as possible.
Due to the high interest in international mobility, there is little permanence in the nursing positions in the Philippines. Most RNs choose to sign short-term contracts that will allow for flexibility to work overseas. Filipino nurses feel less committed to the hospital as they are temporary staff members. This lack of attachment and minimal responsibility worsens the health of Filipino patients.
The education system has also been hurt by the increase of nurses in the Philippines. As Filipinos are attracted to working as nurses, the number of nursing students has steadily increased. As a result, the number of nursing programs has grown rapidly in a commercialized manner. In the 1970s, there were only 40 nursing schools in the Philippines; by 2005 the number had grown to 441 nursing colleges. While the education opportunities for nursing students has grown enormously, the quality of education has declined. This can be seen by the low rate (50%) of students who passed the nursing exam since the 1990s. Furthermore, the Technical Committee on Nursing Education of the Higher Education Commission (CHED) determined that 23% of Filipino nursing schools failed to meet the requirements set by the government. 
In summary, the emigration of Filipino nurses HAS Encouraged doctors to switch to nursing, created a shortage of skilled Specialized and Experienced nurses, affected the education system, and distorted health care delivery and care to medical issues in rural areas. While remittances, return migration, and the transfer of knowledge support the Philippines, they fail to fully compensate the loss of health workers , which disrupts the Filipino health and education sectors.
Dr. Jaime-Galvez Tan, the Philippine Secretary of Health, said that the Philippines could collapse. 
In October 2015 The UK Government announced that Nurses will be added to the government’s shortage occupation list on an interim basis. 
In December 2015, 207 out of 232 English hospitals (90%) reported nursing shortages. 
In January 2016 the RCN stated that more than 10,000 nursing posts went unfilled in 2015.  This is a 3% increase year on year from 11% in 2013, 14% in 2014 and 17% in 2015 of all London nursing positions 10% as an average nationwide.  According to a BBC article the Department of Health said it did not recognize the figures. 
According To the American National Council of State Boards of Nursing ,  the number of US trained nurses has-beens Increasing over the past decade: In 2000 71.475 US-trained nurses est devenu newly licensed. In 2005, 99,187 US-trained nurses became newly licensed. In 2009, 134,708 US-trained nurses became newly licensed. Therefore, a 9.8% annual increase of US license fees. It is clear that US nursing enrollment in the US is well above 1.19% annual US population growth.
While the number of US nurses has increased each year, the US and US Bureau of Labor Statistics,  is expected to be 22%, or 2.12% annually. Therefore, the 9.8% annual growth rate of new growth is expected to increase by 7.7% per year with the assumption of consistent growth figures over the next decade.
The United States population is projected to grow at least 18% over two decades in the 21st century, while the population is expected to increase.  The increase in the elderly is projected to increase the number of nurses in the elderly and to increase the number of nurses. Projections suggest that by 2020 to 2025 one third of the current RN and LPN workforce will be eligible to withdraw.  The current shortfall of nurses is projected at 800,000 by the year 2020. 
Professional health and related occupations were expected to increase between 2000 and 2012. The demand for health care and technical occupations will continue to increase. It is projected that there will be 1.7 million job openings between 2000 and 2012. The demand for registered nurses is even higher. Registered nurses are predicted to have 1,101,000 openings due to growth during this 10-year period.  In a 2001 American Hospital Association survey, 715 hospitals reported that 126,000 nursing positions were unfilled. 
Other research findings report a projection of opposite trend. Although the demand for nurses continues to increase, the rate of employment has slowed down since 1994 because hospitals have been incorporating less-skilled nursing staff into substitutes for nurses .  With the decrease in employment, the earnings for nurses decreased. Wage Among nurses leveled off in correlation with inflation entre 1990 and 1994.  The recent economic crisis of 2009 HAS further Top Decreased the demand for RNs.
Comparing the data released by the Bureau of Health Professions, the projections of shortage within two years have increased.
US: Supply versus Demand Projections for FTE Registered Nurses
Source: Data from the Bureau of Health Professions (2002) 
However, emergency and acute care is in great demand, and this reduction is not expected to improve the economy.   In 2009, it was reported that in places like New York, Iowa newly graduated nurses were having more difficulty finding jobs and older nurses were delaying retirement due to economic conditions. This hiring situation was mostly found in hospitals; nursing homes nurses and nurses nurses in strong numbers. 
Some states have a surplus of nurses while other states face a shortage. This is the number of new graduates and the total demand for nurses in each area. Some states face severe shortage (such as the northwestern states, as well as Texas and Oklahoma), while other states have a surplus of registered nurses.
US: Supply versus Demand Projections for FTE Registered Nurses
Source: Data from the Bureau of Health Professions. (2004). 
Patching up the shortage
Nursing shortages can be either intermittent or not depending on the number of patients needing medical attention.
Retention and recruitment are important methods to achieve a long-term solution to nursing shortage. Recruitment is promoted through the practice of RNs and future waves of retirement. Refining the work environment can improve the overall perception of nursing as an occupation. This can be achieved by making job satisfaction. Writers Lori Candela, Antonio Gutierrez, and Sarah Keating point out in the journal, Nurse Education Today, ways the academic nursing administrators can make a change. “Individual support to attend workshops or conferences, participation in on-campus teaching / learning faculty sessions, the use of consultants with expertise in particular areas of teaching and evaluation, and mentoring networks that include senior faculty with teaching expertise” can all create a strong relationship between staff members developing a better environment.  additional, financial opportunities such as signing bonuses can attract nurses.
To assist the health sector, Congress approved the Nurse Reinvestment Act in 2002 to provide funding to advance nursing education, scholarships , grants, diversity programs , loan repayment programs, nursing faculty programs, and comprehensive geriatric education.  Currently, mandatory overtime for nurses is prohibited in nine states. 
Other ways of assisting to fill the gap in the United States would include giving them the opportunity to pick their own overtime and schedules. Also, it would be a great incentive for young nurses to enter the hospital if they knew there were bonuses for continued excellence. 
To be used in the past, health care has been used by nurses and nurses. Float pool nurses are staff employed by the hospital to work in any unit. Agency nurses are employed by an independent staffing organization and have the opportunity to work in any hospitals on a daily, weekly or contractual basis. Similar to other professionals , both types of nurses can only work within their scope of practice , training, and certification.
Float pool nurses and agency nurses, as mentioned by First Consulting group, are used in response to the current shortage. Use of the said services increases the cost of health care, decreases specialty, and decreases the interest in long-term solutions to the shortage.
International recruitment is often used to fill the nursing gap but gives rise to concern now that the U.S. Homeland Security has stopped the issuance of the H-1C visa, which was deemed specifically for nurses. Because of the Affordable Care Act, which will result in an increased number of insured Americans, it is estimated that there will be an even greater need for nurses in the near future. U.S. trained nurses are concerned, however, that this recruitment initiative impedes on their ability to obtain positions in the field after completing their training. A nursing shortage does not translate to new nursing jobs.
In response to the growing nursing shortage is the advent of travel nursing has Specialized sub-set of the staffing agency industry Evolved That HAS to serve the needs of hospitals affected. According to the Professional Association of Nurse Travelers , there are an estimated 25,500  working in the US.
There is a nursing recruitment initiative and nursing workforce development program for residents of the United States, which were professional nurses in their countries. This initiative helps them get back into the nursing profession, especially getting through credentialing and nursing exams.  The original model was developed in 2001 at San Francisco State University in cooperation with the San Francisco City College of San Francisco (“The San Francisco Welcome Back Center”). There are centers in many cities, such as Los Angeles, San Diego, and Boston, where it is called a Boston Welcome Back Center for Internationally Educated Nurses. It is a program for the United States only.  The Boston Welcome Back Center was opened in October 2005 with a $ 50,000 seed grant from the Board of Higher Education’s Nursing Initiative. 
In 2004, California became the first state to legally mandated minimum nurse-to-patient staffing ratios in acute care hospitals.  A subsequent study evaluated the effect on the outcomes of nurses and patients in the United States of America in the subsequent years with those of New Jersey and Pennsylvania – two similar states without such mandates.  There was substantial compliance with the mandate in California, with over 80% compliance rates; Similar levels of non-mandated compliance in the comparator states were less important, at 19%, 52%, and 63% compliance in medical / surgical, pediatric , and intensive care units(ICUs) in New Jersey and 33%, 66%, and 71% in Pennsylvania.  After extensive adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics, the study revealed statistically significant relationships between the nurse-to-patient ratio and 30-day mortality and failure to rescue (FTR – that is, clinically-important deterioration, such as death or permanent disability, from a complication of an underlying illness or medical care) in all three states.  Across all three states, facilities with nurse-to-patient ratios consistent with Those Were mandated in California associated with lower rates of nursing burnout , and nurses Reported Consistently better quality of care. 
In September 2007, in the 110th Congress, Senator Richard Durbin of Illinois introduced S.2064: Nurse Training and Retention Act of 2007 on the floor of the Senate. It was a bill to fund comprehensive programs to ensure an adequate supply of nurses. It was referred to committee for the purpose of the study. 
In April 2008, in the 110th Congress, HR 5924: Emergency Nursing Supply Relief Act was introduced as a bill to the House of Representatives by Robert Wexler of Florida. If it had passed, it would have amended the American Competitiveness in the Twenty-first Century Act of 2000 and would have given up to 20,000 visas per year to nurses and physical therapists until September 2011. Would not be counted against the 20,000 yearly cap. The bill was referred to committees for study in Congress.   
On February 11, 2009, legislation was introduced by Representatives John Shadegg (R-AZ), Jeff Flake (R-AZ), and Ed Pastor (D-AZ) in the 111th Congress to the House of Representatives, HR 1001 (“The Nursing Relief Act of 2009 “A new nonimmigrant visa category for registered nurses, and for other purposes.) A new non-immigrant” W “visa category for nurses to be able to work in the United States. This article is only available in French. The proposed bill was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary and was never reported by Committee.   
The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act includes more strategies for funding and retention. The act provides funding for advanced education nurses grants, diversity grants, and offers a nurse education loan repayment program. The program repays over half of the student loans to the medical student who has a contract with them. 
The Nurse Reinvestment Act of 2002 had many strategies. The provision of services and scholarships, providing more services to the nursing profession, making more public service announcements about nursing and educating the public. creating options for the people who already have a degree but would like to go into nursing. 
Immigration process to US
Nurses seeking to immigrate to the US can apply as direct hires or through a recruitment agency. For entry to the US, a visa must be included. First they must pass a creditable review, followed by a test of nursing knowledge called the Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools Examination (CGFNS), and finally a test of English-language proficiency.
They have 140,000 employment-based (EB) visas every year.  Filipino nurses are only allotted 2,800 visas per year, thus creating a backlog among applicants. For example, in September 2009, 56,896 Filipinos were waiting for EB-3 visa numbers.  This number contrasts with the 95,000 nurses licensed in 2009, many of whom want to migrate to the US, and they must go to the National Council. Licensure Examination to qualify for nursing standards. (See also Nursing visa retrogression in US .)
- Brain drain
- Health care providers
- Health Human Resources
- Physician supply
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- Jump up^ Beu, B. (2004). and the nurse reinvestment act. [Online]. AORN Journal, 79 (5), 1061-1063. Retrieved June 5, 2005 from Proquest Database (639206991).
- Jump up^ Healthcare Financial Management, 2005, Volume 59, Issue 1
- Jump up^ Anderson, Amy (2014). “Backgrounder # 2887 on Health Care March 18, 2014 The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Health Care Workforce” . Retrieved 25 September 2014 .
- Jump up^ Phil Light. “PanTravelers – Total number of active nurses travelers” . pantravelers.org .
- Jump up^ “Welcome Back Initiative” . welcomebackinitiative.org .
- Jump up^ Boston Welcome Back to Internationally Educated Nurses “
- Jump up^ Fifield, Mary L., “World-Class Care: Boston’s Welcome Back Center Puts Internationally Educated Nurses Back to Work” (PDF) . New England Journal of Higher Education . 22 n4: 17-18 Winter 2008.
- Jump up^ Mendelsohn, Janet (June 2006). “Welcome Back Program Critical Nursing Shortage Addresses – Bunker Hill Community College Magazine” (PDF) . janetmendelsohn.com .
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Aiken LH, Sloane DM, Cimiotti JP Clarke SP, Flynn L, Seago JA Spetz J Smith HL (August 2010). “Implications of the California nurse staffing mandate for other states” . Health Serv Res . 45 (4): 904-21. doi : 10.1111 / j.1475-6773.2010.01114.x . PMC 2908200 . Retrieved 4 September2017 .
- Jump up^ “HR2064” . GovTrack .
- Jump up^ “HR 5924” . govtrack.us .
- Jump up^ “HR5924 Emergency Nursing Supply Relief Act (Introduced in House)” . THOMAS Library of Congress .
- Jump up^ “HR5924: Emergency Nursing Supply Relief Act – US Congress – OpenCongress” . OpenCongress .
- Jump up^ The Nursing Relief Act of 2009 (HR1001) tracked in the Congress
- Jump up^ “Proposed Nonimmigrant Visa Category for Professional Nurses Would Help Fix the Shortage of Qualified Nurses” . globalimmigrationcounsel.com. March 5, 2009.
- Jump up^ “Nursing Relief Act of 2009 (Introduced in House) HR 1001 IH” . THOMAS Library of Congress(contains the full proposed bill).
- Jump up^ “College Nursing Scholarships & Grants for Nursing” . College Nursing Scholarships & Grants . Retrieved 28 March 2013 .
- Jump up^ “The Nurse Reinvestment” . The Nurse Reinvestment Act . Retrieved 28 March 2013 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Pastor Cristina DC. “Once In Hospital Mainstay, Filipino Immigrant Nurses Face Dwindling Job Opportunities.” Feet in 2 Worlds. Center of New York City Affairs, 14 Apr. 2010. Web. 05 May 2010.