Recommendation letter

recommendation letter or letter of recommendation , Also Known As a letter of reference , reference letter or simply reference , is a document en qui the writer assesses the qualities, characteristics, and capabilities of the person being white recommended in terms of That individual’s Ability to perform a particular task or function. Letters of recommendation are Typically related to employment (Such a letter May aussi be called Expired year employment reference or job reference ), admission to institutions of Higher Education , or scholarshipadmissibilité. Recommendations letters are usually specifically requested to be addressed to someone, and are therefore addressed to a particular requester (such as a new employer, university admissions officer, etc.), they may also be issued to the person being recommended without specifying an addressee .

References may also be required for contracts, particularly in the fields of engineering, consultancy, industry and construction, and with regard to public procurement and tenders . Reference letters for organizations are used to assess the level of service.

Some applications, such as: Usually, they are not recommended because they are not there, they are not confident in their recommenders.


The person providing a reference is called a referee . An employment reference letter is usually written by a trainer or manager, but references can also be asked from co-workers, customers and vendors. [1] Teachers and professors often supply references for students who have taken their classes. [2] References provided for organizations are usually provided by the United States.


The employment reference letter can cover: [3]

  • the employee’s tasks and responsibilities
  • the duration of employment or tasks / responsibilities
  • the position of the author of the reference letter
  • the employee’s abilities, knowledge, creativity, intelligence
  • the employee’s qualifications (foreign languages, special skills)
  • the employee’s social attitude
  • the employee’s power of report
  • reason (s) of employment termination
  • Someone with the actual recommendation itself (eg ‘I would like to … [name] as a … [function / role] and would be happy to hire him / her again’).


In some countries, euphemistic . For example, in the German-language Arbeitszeugnis , the following terms are frequently used: [4]

  • Excellent = stets zu unserer vollsten Zufriedenheit erledigt (always done to our complete satisfaction)
  • Good = stets zu unserer vollen Zufriedenheit (always to our full satisfaction)
  • Satisfactory = zu unserer vollen Zufriedenheit (to our full satisfaction)
  • Adequate = zu unserer Zufriedenheit (to our satisfaction)
  • Poor = hat sich bemüht, den Anforderungen gerecht zu werden (has endeavored to meet the demands)

This language is itself an unwritten code in the employment world. Its purpose is to give even weakly performing employees a letter of recommendation that does not sound negative. However, the euphemistically glazed-over descriptions are now well known, so that the original is not longer served. [5] Nonetheless, it is still standard to use this codified language.

Checking of references

Most potential employers will contact you to obtain references before offering a job to a new employee. A survey by the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) found 89%, executive (85%), administrative (84%) and technical (81%) positions. [6] Candidates are advised to provide a list of suitable candidates for their use in the future, and to make them available to them. In some cases a candidate is not a candidate.

Duty to provide a reference

Some employers may not be willing to provide references because they may be worried about potential lawsuits. In this case, the job title, dates of employment and salary history for the employee. [1] Germany , Austria , Switzerlandand Bulgaria are the only countries in Europe where they have an employment reference, including the right to a correct, unambiguous and benevolent appraisal. [7]

While there is no common law duty to Provide a reference, [8] the Supreme Court of Canada HAS Held That’s refusal to do so May Constitute “conduct That is unfair or is in bad faith ” with respect to a wrongful dismissal , and THUS “indicative of the type of conduct to be compensated by way of an addition to the period .” [9] There is a duty of care to ensure that it is provided, it is accurate and not to give a misleading impression, [10] as held by the House of Lordsin Spring v Guardian Insurance plc[11] If used year goes beyond what a reference shoulds Contain, or if it Gives Inaccurate or misleading information, liability May Arise in the areas of breach of statutory duty , negligent misstatement , deceit , defamation or malicious falsehood . [10] It does not matter what form the reference might take. [12]

In the United Kingdom, references to the protection of personal data are subject to the provisions of the Data Protection Act 1998 , but certain confidentiality considerations apply to the identity of the person giving the reference. [13]As a result, together with the duty of care under Spring , Many organisms-have Issued guidance as to best practice to be Undertaken by reference providers. [14] [15]

The duty of care has also been applied in non-reference situations, as reported in McKindal Swindon College . [16] In another case, the Court of Appeal of England and Wales has held that “a reference must not be given to a misleading or impressed overall impression, even if its discrete components are factually correct.” [17] HOWEVER, while a reference must be accurate and fair, it is not Necessary to report all material facts concernant an individual, [18] goal it can be argued That, if an Agreed reference Arising from a settlement agreement is misleadingly incomplete, the employer may be sued by a subsequent employer for breaching its duty of care. [19] TheEmployment Appeal Tribunal , in an unfair dismissal case, ruled that, in preparing a reference, it was not sufficient to provide details of complaints against an employee of the employee was not aware. [20]

The Court of Appeal, where the case arises, where the investigation is conducted and fair way, which would be particularly important if to omit this information would be providing a misleading reference. [21]

In 2016, the Financial Conduct Authority and the Prudential Regulation Authority are issuing rules that will require the furnishing of references, before any approval or certification may be given by them, as well as specifying the information that they must contain. [10] [22] [23]

See also

  • Character witness
  • Dago dazzler


  1. ^ Jump up to:b Doyle, Alison. “References for employment” . Retrieved 2 May 2012 .
  2. Jump up^ “Requesting Letters of Recommendation” . PSY 301 . California State University Long Beach . Retrieved 5 April 2017 .
  3. Jump up^ Peter Häusermann:Arbeitszeugnisse – wahr, klar und fair. Tipps und Anregungen für verantwortungsbewusste Arbeitgeber. 6. Auflage. Spektramedia, Zürich 2008,ISBN 978-3-908244-08-0
  4. Jump up^ Günter Huber, Waltraud Müller:Das Arbeitszeugnis in Recht und Praxis. Rechtliche Grundlagen, Musterzeugnisse, Textbausteine, Zeugnisanalyse. 12. Auflage. Haufe, Freiburg / Breisgau, Berlin, Planegg bei München, Würzburg 2009,ISBN 978-3-448-09322-3
  5. Jump up^ Thorsten Knobbe, Mario Leis, Karsten Umnuß:Arbeitszeugnisse: Textbausteine ​​und Tätigkeitsbeschreibungen(dt./engl.). 5. Auflage. Haufe, Freiburg / Breisgau, Berlin, Planegg bei München, Würzburg 2010,ISBN 978-3-448-10118-8.
  6. Jump up^ Doyle, Alison. “References – Will They or Will not They?” . Retrieved 2 May 2012 .
  7. Jump up^ Heinz-Günther Dachrodt Erich Ullmann:Zeugnisse lesen und verstehen. Formulierungen und ihre Bedeutung. ÖGB-Verlag Wien 2000,ISBN 3-7035-0809-4
  8. Jump up^ Lawton v BOC Transhield Ltd., [1987] 2 All ER 608
  9. Jump up^ Wallace v United Grain Growers Ltd. 1997 CanLII 332at par. 96-101, [1997] 3 SCR 701 (30 October 1997),Supreme Court(Canada), subsequently affirmed in Honda Canada Inc. v Keays 2008 SCC 39at para. 57, [2008] 2 SCR 362 (27 June 2008)
  10. ^ Jump up to:c “Regulatory references: are you ready” . Eversheds . January 28, 2016 . Retrieved 13 February2016 .
  11. Jump up^ Spring v Guardian Insurance plc [1994] UKHL 7, [1995] 2 AC 296 (7 July 1994)
  12. Jump up^ Byrnell v British Telecommunications & Anor 32 [2009] EWHC 727 (QB)at para. 29, 32 (20 February 2009)
  13. Jump up^ “Data Protection Good Practice. Note: Subject access and employment references” (PDF) . Information Commissioner’s Office . November 16, 2005 . Retrieved 14 February 2016 .
  14. Jump up^ “Data Classification: Issuing Staff and Student References Advisory Note” (PDF) . . University of Stirling . January 2015.
  15. Jump up^ “Human Resources Policy No. HR70: Employment References” (PDF) . . Shrewsbury and Telford Hospital NHS Trust . December 2010.
  16. Jump up^ Salter, Michael; Bryden, Chris (24 June 2011). “Gone but not forgotten” . New Law Journal . 161 (7471). , discussingMcKie v Swindon College [2011] EWHC 469 (QB)(11 February 2011)
  17. Jump up^ Bartholomew v London Borough Of Hackney & Anor[1998] EWCA Civ 1604(23 October 1998)
  18. Jump up^ Cox v Sun Life Alliance Ltd [2001] EWCA Civ 649(9 May 2001)
  19. Jump up^ Smith, Ian; Baker, Aaron (2015). Smith & Wood’s Employment Law (12th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 163. ISBN  978-0-19-872735-4 .
  20. Jump up^ TSB Bank Plc v Harris [1999] UKEAT 1145_97_0112(1 December 1999)
  21. Jump up^ Jackson v Liverpool City Council [2011] EWCA Civ 1068(15 June 2011)
  22. Jump up^ “CP15 / 31: Strengthening accountability in banking and insurance: regulatory references” . Financial Conduct Authority . October 6, 2015.
  23. Jump up^ “Strengthening accountability in banking and insurance: regulated references – CP36 / 15” . Prudential Regulation Authority . October 6, 2015.

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