A service voucher is a financial instrument which allows a public authority to target social services at those in need, and at the same time to promote employment and labor market integration. It does not require certain services which meet social policy objectives.
A voucher scheme will start by defining Typically services are needed in society qui, qui purpose are being white Neither Supplied by the market nor by the public sector . These might include home care , household repairs, ironing , or bicycle hire and repair. The activities within the scheme will typically be agreed with trade unions and employers ‘ organizations, to avoid concern about the disturbance of unfair competition .
Potential providers of these services are identified, often from among the long-term unemployed .
Vouchers are sold to people who want to use the service. The price is Subsidized, so That on the one hand the service is affordable – and for instance can compete with informal (illegal) work – and on the other Provides decent condition for the working employees (Including social insurance cover, holiday pay etc.) . An example of this kind of subsidy scheme can be found in Belgium, where service vouchers for house cleaning, laundry, ironing, sewing, cooking, running errands, and transportation for people with reduced mobility. Each person residing in Belgium with a National Register Number is entitled to a quota of 500 vouchers a year, with the first 400 vouchers sold at a rate of 9 EUR each, and remaining 100 vouchers sold at a rate of 10 EUR. In addition, each household has a quota of maximum 1000 service vouchers, with exceptions given to single parents and people with disabilities, which may be entitled to 2000 service vouchers, depending on circumstances. Mothers with their own business are also entitled to 105 extra vouchers. This initiative was made in order to fight the black market and has resulted in the creation of many jobs. This subsidy scheme allows for the employment of a pensioner and a pensioner; benefits that were not possible when working on the black market. For each service voucher, a domestic servant receives a salary of 22.69 EUR, paid by both the customer and the state. In addition, tax breaks are also given to the first service. Similar systems exists in France and in Sweden. benefits that were not possible when working on the black market. For each service voucher, a domestic servant receives a salary of 22.69 EUR, paid by both the customer and the state. In addition, tax breaks are also given to the first service. Similar systems exists in France and in Sweden. benefits that were not possible when working on the black market. For each service voucher, a domestic servant receives a salary of 22.69 EUR, paid by both the customer and the state. In addition, tax breaks are also given to the first service. Similar systems exists in France and in Sweden.
Analysis of benefits
Vouchers can be determined to reduce the size of an individual. In the field of personal and household services, their success has been growing in recent years, following successful experiences in some European countries. Vouchers can be seen as tools that would be used for these services. Very basic, vouchers are simple means of payment. The payment may be integrally made by the user, or by a public finance company, and may be divided into two parts (eg, companies paying for part of the cost of insurance companies providing certain services through this means).
In the field of care policies, the increasing use of commodities has been analyzed as an element of a commodification trend that corresponds to an increase in what can be labeled a “social market” logic. Social markets de la demande de la demande de la demande de la solution de la solution de la solution de la solution de l’assurance de la communication et la solution de la demande. The market logic involves developing the demand side of the process of “latent” demand into effective demand. These social markets thus involve competition between different modes of provision, with the user receiving direct or indirect assistance from public authorities to make their choice.
In the field of “non-care” services, vouchers are generally used for the same reasons as those in the care sector. quality issues (quality of services and quality of jobs).
- A first advantage is freedom of choice . Some types of providers (sometimes including public providers) or simply between providers of one type (eg domestic workers).
- A second advantage is efficiency . Vouchers offer less freedom than choice of money, but their effectiveness is linked to the fact that the demand is “channelled”, ie that it is oriented towards certain types of services or activities; moreover there is an efficiency for public finances as if not used, the voucher does not represent a cost for authorities. It’s possible to imagine public policies targeting people with special needs.
- A third advantage is reduction of undeclared labor . Vouchers are meant to simplify the administrative procedures when employing someone to outsource housework tasks or care activities. In some cases, the purchase of a labor contract between the parties (as in France under specific conditions), which may have a negative impact on working conditions.
- Further, social security contributions are calculated automatically and directly paid. Because They considerably administrative burden Reduce , vouchers are Supposed to be a significant incentive for the use of Declared Rather than plowing undeclared labor.
- Fifth, and finally, vouchers might foster quality of services. The proponents of the market-oriented and purchaser-provider model consider that it encourages innovation, flexibility and quality, and encourages the user-oriented approach. As a Eurofound report notes: “The more active involved service users are in determining the content of care, the more likely it is that they will be better suited to individual values, culture, attitudes and circumstances. Empowerment of care recipients to their own care and insurance. This can potentially influence the quality of care, as it would simply not be ‘bought’. At the same time, they could tailor their care to their specific needs, and again raising quality and improving delivery.
- Jump up^ Developing personal and household services in the EU – A focus on housework activities, European Commission, 2013.