Working parent

working parent is a parent or a parent who engages in a work life. There are many structures within single families, working mothers or single, working fathers. There are also two parents who are dual-earners, in which both parents provide income. [1] Within these family structures, there is much concern about gender inequalities . Within the institution of gender, they are expected gender roles that society [2]

Motherhood penalty and fatherhood bonus

Although women may be more likely to employ their salary, [3] women also face a challenge of defending their mothers and working conditions. [4] Men have the potential of getting high looks for being a working father. Hegemonic masculinity plays a role in determining a man’s bonus. If he is white, middle class and has a stable home life with a wife and children, he is viewed as the most appropriate male to get a raise. [5] As such, more fathers are also offered paid paternity leave.

Working mothers

The involvement of women in the workplace From the late 19th century to the 1970s, married women in Western countries Some Were restricted from working outside the home through wedding bars . For instance, in the Netherlands , the marriage bar was removed in 1957, [6] [7] [8] and in Ireland was removed in 1973. [9] In some European countries, their husbands until a few days ago, for example in France until 1965 [10] [11] and in Spain until 1975. [12]After the second wave of feminism made it feasible for more women to be present in the work place Many mothers Took advantage; According to the US Department of Labor, the increase of mothers in the workforce, with children under the age of 18, has risen to 70.6% in 2011. Mothers with younger children are less likely to work with children. [13]

Nevertheless, they still have a positive influence on their ability to maintain a healthy home-work life. The added pressures of working with children in the stereotypical, gendered assumptions that are the primary care takers of children, which is a fact that is often reflected in privileges and advantages in the workplace between men and women. One disadvantage that the working mothers is a wage gap , [14] referred to as a ” motherhood penalty “. When women are hired, they are more likely to interfere with their ability to work. [15]Relating to their male counterparts, if they want to provide more for their family, they are to take on the masculine work ethic. That is, be more aggressive, and put work before your family. [14] An increase in work demands may alleviate the burden of economic decreases; However, this is a time to raise a family. With 66% of married women in a dual-income family, [16] That illustrates That percentage, ALTHOUGH Both Parents are economic providers for Their family, the women take on Both work and family Responsibilities due to society’s gender roles. Research shows that, with utility maximization theory, women are not only opting out of the workforce, but rather are able to assess the potential and the costs of their exit decisions. . [17]

In Europe, Ireland and the Netherlands have some of the strongest housewife traditions. In the early 1980s, the Commission of the European Communities postponement Women in the European Community , found que la Netherlands and Ireland HAD the lowest labor participation of married women and the MOST public disapproval of it. [18] In the Netherlands, from the 1990s onwards, the numbers of women in the workplace increased, but most of the women working part time . [19] According to The Economist, in the Netherlands, in the World Wars of the 20th century, and so Dutch women did not experience working for women. The wealth of the country, coupled with the fact that “[Dutch] politics was dominated by Christian values ​​until the 1980s” that meant that women were slower to enter the workforce. [20] In contrast to the mid-20th century Western Europe, Communist countries such as USSR and Mainland China . [21] In the US, partner after the feminist movement (accompagné by the civil rights movement Against theracial discrimination and the Vietnam War ), there were 50% married women who were born in 1978; in 1997, the number was 61%. Increased numbers of housewives happened in the Bush era in the 2000s. After the 2008 financial crisis , because of a decrease in family income, they were 69% Married women who were kept working in the USA. [22] [23]

As more countries have joined the European Union , and become subject to its directives , the policies regarding women’s labor rights have been improved throughout Europe. Important directives include the Employment Equality Framework Directive , the Pregnant Workers Directive , the Parental Leave Directive and the Directive 2002/73 / EC – equal treatment of 23 September 2002 amending Council Directive 76/207 / EEC on the implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women as regards access to employment, vocational training and promotion, and working conditions . [24] [25] [26]

Mommy wars

The battle between working mothers and stay-at-home moms has been called the “mommy wars”. Arguments center around the most effective of one’s time in raising children. Leslie Morgan Steiner wrote that, as they struggle with their own choices in parenting against society’s standards, they engage in this warfare that does nothing to promote self-acceptance, acceptance of their individual lives. [27] ”

Research studies

The Harvard Business Review and the Pew Research Center have both reported the results of a study that suggests that they are the “sole or primary source of income” in approximately 40 percent of US households with children. The equivalent statistic in 1960 was 11 percent. [28] [29]

References

  1. Jump up^ “Understanding Family Structures and Dynamics” . Michael Meyerhoff, EDD . Retrieved 2011-03-01 .
  2. Jump up^ Percheski, Christine (2008). ” ‘ Family Structure and the Reproduction of Inequalities ‘ .” Annual Review of Sociology . 34 (1): 257-276. doi : 10.1146 / annurev.soc.34.040507.134549 .
  3. Jump up^ Koch, K (2000). ” ‘ Fatherhood Movement ‘ “. 10 : 473-496.
  4. Jump up^ Correll, Benard, Paik (2007). ” ‘ Getting A Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty? ‘ ” American Journal of Sociology . 112 (5): 1297-1338. doi :10.1086 / 511799 .
  5. Jump up^ Hodges, Budig (2010). ” ‘ Who Gets the Daddy Bonus? Organizational Hegemonic Masculinity and the Impact of Fatherhood on Earnings ‘ “. Gender & Society . 24 (6): 717-745. doi : 10.1177 / 0891243210386729 .
  6. Jump up^ The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets: Second Edition, by Tito Boeri, Jan van Ours, pp. 105
  7. Jump up^ Dutch gender and LGBT-equality policy, 2013-16
  8. Jump up^ 2015 BPFA Review Report of the Netherlands Government
  9. Jump up^ Women of Ireland:Rachel A. Patterson’sChange Toward Social and Political Equality in the 21st Century Irish Republic
  10. Jump up^ Guillaumin, Colette (1994). Racism, Sexism, Power, and Ideology . pp. 193-195.
  11. Jump up^ Meltzer, Françoise (1995). Hot Property: The Stakes and Claims of Literary Originality . p. 88.
  12. Jump up^ http://countrystudies.us/spain/43.htm
  13. Jump up^ “Employment Characteristics of Families Summary” . US Department of Labor . Retrieved 2011-10-22 .
  14. ^ Jump up to:b Acker, Joan (2006). ” ‘ Inequality Regimes ‘ “. Gender & Society . 20(4): 441-464. doi : 10.1177 / 0891243206289499 .
  15. Jump up^ Milkie, Melissa (2009). ” ‘ Taking the Second Shift: Time Allocations and Time Pressures of US Parents with Preschoolers ‘ “. Social Forces . 88 (2): 487-518. doi : 10.1353 / sof.0.0268 .
  16. Jump up^ “Working Mothers in the Great Recession” . Carolyn B. Maloney . Retrieved 2011-02-16 .
  17. Jump up^ Working with Children? The Probability of Mothers Exiting the Workforce at Time of Birth , Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, February 2008
  18. Jump up^ “it is in the Netherlands (17.6%) and in Ireland (13.6%) that we see the smallest numbers of women and the general public. (pg 14). [1]
  19. Jump up^ “Archived copy” (PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016 . Retrieved April 4, 2016 .
  20. Jump up^ https://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2015/05/economist-explains-12
  21. Jump up^ In the kitchen debate in 1959: Nixon said American housewives are happier than the Soviet Union working women
  22. Jump up^ Employment Characteristics of Families Summary. “US Department of Labor Retrieved 2011-10-22.
  23. Jump up^ a Chinese-English translation web (译 言 网): Will Chinese women rule the world?
  24. Jump up^ http://ec.europa.eu/justice/gender-equality/rights/work-life-balance/index_en.htm
  25. Jump up^ http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32000L0078
  26. Jump up^ http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CONSLEG:1976L0207:20021005:EN:PDF
  27. Jump up^ “Leslie Morgan Steiner” . Retrieved 2011-03-02 .
  28. Jump up^ John Gerzema,”” Feminine “Values ​​Can Give Tomorrow’s Edge Leaders”, “Harvard Business Review” Blog, August 12, 2013. Retrieved August 13, 2013.
  29. Jump up^ Wendy Wang, Kim Parker and Paul Taylor,”Breadwinner Moms,”Pew Social Research & Demographic Trends website, May 29, 2013. Retrieved August 13, 2013.

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